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Prostitution laws make it a crime in most states to offer, agree to, or engage in a sexual act for compensation. Depending upon applicable state law, the stages of a typical prostitution "transaction" can involve charges against the provider of services (for "prostitution"), the customer paying for the services (for "solicitation of prostitution"), and any middleman (for "pandering" or "pimping").


Prostitution, pornography, and other forms of commercial sex are a multibillion dollar industry. They enrich a small minority of predators, while the larger community is left to pay for the damage.

People used in the sex industry often need medical care as a result of the ever-present violence. They may need treatment for infectious diseases, including AIDS. Survivors frequently need mental health care for post-traumatic stress disorder, psychotic episodes and suicide attempts. About a third end up chronically disabled and on Social Security.

The sex trade plays an active role in promoting alcohol and drug problems. Pimps also use prostituted women in forgery and credit card fraud. The community must pay for chemical dependency treatment, insurance costs and incarceration.

In addition to these costs, the community loses the contributions which might have been made to legitimate community productivity by those used up in the sex industry.

The operators of sex businesses not only do not pay for these expenses, many manage to avoid paying taxes at all.


No business can afford to create a product for which there are no buyers. The first step in understanding the sex industry is to understand the customers, the johns.

Real sexual relationships are not hard to find. There are plenty of adults of both sexes who are willing to have sex if someone treats them well, and asks. But there lies the problem. Some people do not want an equal, sharing relationship. They do not want to be nice. They do not want to ask. They like the power involved in buying a human being who can be made to do almost anything.

The business of prostitution and pornography is the use of real human beings to support the fantasies of others. Anyone working in prostitution who tells a john too much about who they really are, interferes with the fantasy. They risk losing a customer, and may get a beating as well. In real relationships with real people, you are stuck with the limitations of who you are, who your partner is, and what you can do together without hurting each other.

Some people do not want real relationships, or feel entitled to something beyond the real relationships they have. They want to play "super stud and sex slave" or whatever, inside their own heads. If they need to support their fantasies with pictures, video tapes, or real people to abuse, the sex trade is ready to supply them. For a price, they can be "a legend in their own minds."

The most common type of prostitution customer is the user. He is quite self-centered, and simply wants what he considers to be his needs met.

The user would deny any intent to harm anyone, and might even claim some empathy for the sex workers he uses. However, his empathy does not extend to discontinuing his using behavior, nor to helping anyone escape from the sex industry. He does not care whether the person he is using is unwilling or unusually vulnerable. He simply feels entitled to whatever he wants, whenever he wants it. If someone is hurt, that is not his problem.

He sees himself as a respectable person, and works to protect that appearance. Users provide a large, safe, and steady income for the pimps and other "businessmen," of the sex industry.

Sadists are people who have the ability to take pleasure in another person's fear, pain, or humiliation. They constitute about ten percent of the population. Sadists vary in severity, ranging from those who just make you feel bad, on up to those who do torture murders. There is a definite practice effect. If allowed to hurt people often, their sadism gets worse.

Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse by sadists drives their child victims into the street, trying to escape. The pimps and "chickenhawks" take it from there.

Sadists are attracted to prostituted women and children because they are willing to get into a car or come to a place where the sadist can be in control. Sadism is about control. Hurting people who cannot stop them is their most intense and pleasurable form of control.

Sadists play close attention to matters of power. They are most brutal with small women and children, and are more careful with larger women and men. They avoid people who may have someone to protect them, or someone who may take revenge on the victim's behalf.

There are pimps who specialize in supplying victims to sadists, and who base their fees on the amount of damage done to the victim. Sadists are found at all levels of society, including the respected and powerful. They often use this, saying, "You are just a whore, nobody is going to believe you." If they do kill someone, they are very aware that, to some extent, the effort society puts into finding the killer will reflect the value placed on the victim. People working in prostitution are safe victims.

Necrophiles are people who can take pleasure in filth, degradation, and destruction. They are the users of the sick, the old, the psychotic, the brain damaged, the "tracked" and tattooed casualties of the sex industry, in the end stages of their lives. For necrophiles, broken bodies and broken minds are a turn on. They glory in their superiority over ruined human beings, and feel entitled to express their contempt in every way.

Necrophiles must keep their perversion secret from their friends and families, both to protect their social standing, and to protect their fantasies of superiority. Normal people just would not understand.

Child molesters participate in the sex industry in several ways. Some have been aware of a sexual attraction to children, often of a particular age and sex, from some time in late childhood. They then make the choice to act on it.

Some have sadistic characteristics. Children are easier than adults to control. The molester's own children, in his own home, are the easiest of all to control.

Necrophilic child molesters enjoy the knowledge that, when the molesters are finished with them, the children's lives will never be the same. They enjoy the fact that the children may later self-destruct in addiction, prostitution or suicide. It proves that they were right.

Sex offenders against children operate with varying degrees of sophistication. Some do careful "grooming." They use pornography to break down resistance, and supply drugs, alcohol, and money. Others just start out with forcible rape. Many claim unusual "love" for children. They claim that sex between adults and children is not harmful, and should be legalized. Pedophiles actually teach children that they are helpless, hopeless, worthless, and only good for sex and hurting.

A large portion of workers in the sex trade started out as sexually abused children. Some were even "broken in" by being shared with or rented out to others by their own families.

There are specialist pimps who provide children to johns. The fees vary depending on the age, sex and appearance of the child, as well as the amount of damage the child has already incurred.

When caught, the pimps and johns claim not to have known the child's real age. There is a market for small adults made up to look like children, both for direct sex and for pornography. But the truth is in the fees: real children sell for more than fake ones.


No one really wants to have sex with five, ten, or twenty strangers a day, every day. Besides the sheer numbers involved, some of those strangers are going to use a person in ways that are bizarre, painful or disgusting, and occasionally fatal.

When people who have worked in prostitution call it repeated rape, they are not exaggerating or being "hysterical." They are being legally precise. Rape is sexual intercourse, against the will of the victim, carried out by threat or force.

In prostitution, the john performs the sex act with the unwilling victim, but subcontracts the intimidation and violence to another man, the pimp.

The john would like to believe he is paying for sex, but the person he has sex with gets little or none of the money. The money goes to the pimp to pay for the force needed to keep prostituted women and children working. It goes to the drug dealer who provides whatever it takes to keep the workers from becoming psychotic or committing suicide. It goes to pay the businessmen who provide the real estate, support services, and legal protection for the trade.

Pimps come in three general types. Media pimping, like other kinds, involves selling fantasies that ultimately hurt people. Two of their central lies are that women are only good for sex, and men are only good for violence.

They claim that they produce sex and violence because that is all that sells. In fact, many other things sell as well or better. (For example, Walt Disney and Steven Spielberg productions often are very successful.) Media pimps often have a tremendous sense of superiority over "common" people, yet lack the intelligence and creativity to high quality work. They truly enjoy selling a degraded view of the human race.

Advertisers often implicitly promise that buying their products will bring happiness, power, and sexual success. After spending their money, the victims of this "bait and switch" scam find that they get only a pack of cigarettes, a bottle of shampoo, or a magazine full of dirty pictures. They are just as lonely and unhappy as before, but their money is gone.

Media pimps perform another "bait and switch" function, in cooperation with business level pimps. They attract young people hoping for fame and fortune in the legitimate entertainment business, and manipulate them into the lower levels of the sex industry.

They degrade ordinary people living ordinary lives, by showing only idealized characters with perfect bodies, high powered jobs, and plenty of money. The characters' problems are always solved in an hour or two, with a liberal application of sex and violence.

Real people, whose lives cannot hope to measure up to these "ideals", are made to feel inferior and worthless. The media pimps work to divert people from the ups and downs of real life, into dependence on the fantasy worlds that they sell. The sex industry, above all, sells fantasy regardless of who gets hurt.

The media pimps have a lot of money. They own magazines and newspapers, and produce movies and television programs. They can afford to hire law firms and advertising agencies to further their interests. Their money can buy access to political officials, and special treatment for their businesses. In return they offer favorable media exposure, and large campaign contributions.

Their money often goes to support various front organizations which work to direct public discussion toward "free speech rights," and away from the damaging effects of the sex industry on the women and children used in it.

Business level pimps extract profits from the sex industry in ways that minimize the risk of public exposure or criminal prosecution.

They own the bars and strip clubs which attract concentrations of potential johns. They offer jobs as dancers and hostesses to vulnerable young people who are potential candidates for more direct use in the sex trade. They own the adult book stores, massage parlors, motels, and legal brothels.

They posture as legitimate businessmen, conceal their ownership behind corporations and front men, and deny knowing that their property is being used in the sex industry. They charge sex businesses far higher rents and fees than they could get from legitimate tenants, which indicates that they know what the businesses are doing.

Through contacts in the business community, they arrange for sexual services for visiting businessmen, politicians, celebrities, and sports teams. By keeping these arrangements secret, business pimps insure a degree of protection for their other activities from their customers in high places.

Business level pimps separate themselves from the "dirty workers" of the sex trade by treating them as independent contractors rather than employees. This enables them to avoid having to pay taxes, overtime pay, health insurance, and workmen's comp. If one of the workers is arrested, the businessman is protected from any legal involvement. They subcontract any violence needed to the street level pimps.

With support from elements of the "legitimate" entertainment industry, as well as street level pimps, they produce and distribute commercial pornography.

They support and have the support of "civil liberties" advocates, who oppose censorship regardless of the harm done to the people used in making the pornography. They disclaim any responsibility for the actions of potentially violent sex offenders who use pornography to "fuel" their fantasies until they are ready to commit actual violence.

Business pimps often join civic organizations, make highly public contributions to charity, and play a role in local politics. They continually assert their identity as legitimate businessmen. When threatened, they call on the support of the real, legitimate, non-sex business community, often successfully.

Unlike street level pimps, the businessmen usually manage to hold onto their profits. They have investment skills, can afford lawyers, seldom are addicted, and rarely take the risks involved in garden variety crime. Often the greatest danger they face is from the Internal Revenue Service, not from the police.

Street level pimps are the foot soldiers of the sex industry. Typically, they are small time criminals, who have a high need for sadistic gratification.

The johns and business level pimps subcontract to these men the brain-washing, terror, beatings, and the occasional murder needed to keep prostituted women and children working.

Pimps are part of the business even where prostitution is legal. Brothels do not run employment ads. The brothel owners require that any new "employee" be "referred" by someone ready to supply whatever force is necessary to control the woman.

Street pimps learn the business from friends and relatives already in the business, from other criminals in jails and prisons, and from other pimps they meet hanging out in the bars and clubs. Occasionally, someone especially talented in greed and cruelty learns the trade solely by practicing on available victims.

Pimps tend to avoid identifying themselves as such, except to other pimps. They like to present themselves as husbands, boyfriends, or protectors. When caught in acts of violence, they try to prevent outside interference by claiming that it is "only a domestic matter." In fact, the pimps themselves are the greatest danger to those they exploit. The johns and the police are lesser hazards.

Street pimps pride themselves on controlling their victims by psychological manipulation. They claim that prostituted women and children give their money to the pimps because they "love" them. (In criminal language, "She loves me" means "I can control her.") Street pimps try to play down their use of threats and violence, despite the fact that it is their biggest contribution to the sex industry.

Throughout human history there has been the kind of greed that takes the form of wanting to own other human beings. Slavery died out in most areas because it was unprofitable compared to more modern methods of production. The one trade where the would-be slaver can still find success is in the sex industry. For many pimps, the gratification of owning slaves is as important as the drugs and the money.

Contrary to the images in the media, most pimps exploit members of their own race. Many are nearly the same age as their victims.

Most pimps are male. Women are sometimes involved in helping a male pimp to control his "stable," or act as madams in brothels owned by someone else. Some run "escort" or out-call services themselves, but maintain relationships through which they can call on male enforcers when needed.
Occasionally women are involved in supplying their own children to pedophiles, pornographers, or others in the sex industry. The mother's own addiction is the usual cause. Plain greed for money, and the mother's own sexual perversity are less common motivations.

Street level pimps usually spend their money on clothes, jewelry, cars, and especially on their own addictions. They often are involved in other types of crime, especially drug dealing, and may go to prison for those. Successful prosecution for pimping itself is quite unusual.

It is rare for a street pimp to hold onto his money and make the transition to a business level operator, but there always are a few at the business level who got their start as street pimps.


The sex industry ultimately is about power. This is best demonstrated by the care which the industry takes to ensure that those it uses are powerless. The predators are neither irrational nor stupid. They watch carefully for a kind of "victim profile," and avoid anyone who may be uncontrollable or dangerous.

They focus on young people coming out of families that are abusive, disorganized, or non-existent. One fundamental function of the family is protection of its members, especially its children. The family also is a team, and all players must do their jobs. If a member is lost or disabled, others in the extended family or community must step in to carry on. When one or more adults in a family are absent, addicted, mentally ill, or severely demoralized, the children are in danger.

When the family is poor, or part of a devalued minority group, and opportunities for education and good jobs are limited, some members of those families may be willing to take risks. If the young people are being terrorized, beaten, or sexually abused by the very people who should be protecting them, many are going to take their chances on the street. For some, nude dancing or even prostitution may look better than no job at all.

If they are underage, have no address, or cannot afford to have their parents involved, most social service agencies will not help them. Children are still treated as some adults' property.

The juvenile system has little interest in noncriminal runaways or "throw-aways." There are age requirements for normal jobs, usually between 14 and 18 years of age. The very young are practically forced into the sex industry, even before the pimps and johns get involved. They may have to do prostitution from age 12 or 14, until they turn 18, and can get a "better job" such a nude dancing.

There are three general patterns for "breaking" someone into prostitution.

In slave taking, a young male predator "befriends" a victim long enough to be sure she is not dangerous herself, nor protected by anyone who is. He manipulates her into a situation where she can be kidnapped and held in isolation in a place the slaver and his friends control. Over a prolonged period, she is terrorized, tortured, and gang raped. She is threatened with her own death, and that of anyone she loves.

Once she is convinced that her only chance of survival is to do exactly as she is told, she is "turned out." Her first "trick" may in fact be a member of the prostitution organization, set up to make sure she performs as directed. After she has been properly "seasoned," she is put to work for her captors, or sold to another pimp.

The domestic violence transition targets young people coming out of abusive homes who are emotionally needy, and have no real idea of what a normal love relationship looks like. They become involved with a "boyfriend" who initially treats them better than they have ever experienced before. The boyfriend gradually becomes extremely controlling, and eventually violent. He introduces commercial sex in terms of his pressing need for money, and "If you love me, you will do this." He quickly transitions from "just this once" into "You are just a whore, my whore!" and requiring daily prostitution. He continues controlling the victim with alternating emotional manipulation and explosive violence, while living on her earnings, for as long as she lasts.

The "grooming" process is used by older and more sophisticated predators, and is especially used on younger children. These perpetrators become adept at identifying abused, neglected, and depressed children, and "befriending" them. They develop a "special" relationship, one that isolates the child from others, and makes the child feel indebted to the groomer. Slowly, resistance is broken down, using gifts, money, alcohol, drugs, and pornography. In the sex industry, pornography is not only a profitable product, it also is a working tool.

They engage the child in progressively more direct sex, and begin to merge the abuse into the child's identity: "You want this", "You like this", "You make it happen", "Now you are dirty, perverted, queer". These predators often are only interested in children of a specific age or appearance. When they develop beyond that, the kids may be passed off to pedophiles interested in older children. Being suddenly "dumped" for no understandable reason often is very painful for the child.

Over a lifetime these predators may victimize an incredibly large number of children. The emotional damage they do leaves a child even more isolated and vulnerable to further involvement in the sex industry.


The experience of prostitution is remarkably similar for males and females, but there are some differences.

Most young men used in prostitution are heterosexual. They are drawn into the sex industry by many of the same forces as are women. Many johns consider themselves straight, and claim that only the prostituted young male is gay. Those used in male-on-male prostitution often are left with tremendous confusion about their actual sexual orientation. When trying to escape "the life", they may encounter all the prejudices encountered by gays, in addition to the stigma of prostitution.

Rape and sexual slavery are common in jails and prisons. There is considerable public support for it as a normal part of the punishment. Some of those who run institutions do their best to maintain a safe and controlled environment. They may be hampered by outdated, hard to supervise buildings and lack of staff. Others may care very little about what inmates do to each other.

Inmates who go to staff for protection often end up in protective custody which is practically the same as disciplinary isolation. The response of convicts toward "snitches" ranges from abusive to deadly.

Almost all of these traumatized men eventually are released. Many dissolve into alcohol and drug dependence, or are disabled by psychological symptoms. Others wander the streets, intoxicated, armed, and ready to react explosively to any threat of harm or humiliation.

Women used in prostitution usually have children sooner or later. Mothers who cannot protect themselves rarely can protect their children. In the endless whirl of sex, drugs and violence, the children may be neglected, traumatized, or even become merchandise in the sex industry themselves. One of the most painful events in the life of prostitution is losing custody of children, regardless of how good the reasons for that loss may be.

Most prostituted women want very much to be good mothers, often trying to give their children the love and care they never received themselves. The birth of a "trick baby", that is, one fathered by some unknown john, produces very complicated feelings. Some mothers can separate their feeling for the baby from the anger at the way the baby was conceived, but others cannot. Some "trick babies" are given up for adoption by mothers who fear that they otherwise might abuse them.

If the baby was fathered by a pimp, or is at least claimed to be in official records, the courts may fail to recognize, or ignore, the real nature of the relationship. The pimp may be given visitation rights or even custody. This gives the pimp a new person to threaten and a new means of controlling the mother. It makes escaping from the sex industry even harder than it already is.

Both male and female survivors of prostitution usually develop a tremendous hatred of men, especially those in authority. They hate both for the actual harm done, and for the help that was not given when it was terribly needed.


The larger society provides the pimps with a very powerful weapon. It makes prostitution an identity, not an occupation. Once you have taken money for sex, you are a prostitute. Society does not allow an expiration date on that identity, nor a way to be publicly accepted as something else.

Society offers help to people in trouble largely based on the value set on that person. It is much easier to get help for a married, middle class, domestic violence victim, than for a refugee from the sex industry trying to escape from a pimp.

Many people prefer to view prostitution as a "lifestyle choice," or even an "addiction" to a lifestyle. They think most people in the sex industry are there to support their drug habits, when actually the drugs are used to cope with what is happening to their lives. Society assumes that nothing can be done to help them, so there is no need to try. The pimps count on it.

Being trapped, under the control of violent and merciless men, without hope of outside help, sets the stage for Stockholm Syndrome. When the victim cannot successfully fight or flee, she may try to form a protective relationship with her captor. She hopes that if she can prove her love and loyalty to the pimp, she can "love" him into being good. This can become such a desperate attachment that she actually believes she loves him, and passes up chances to escape. Stockholm Syndrome often is the real reason for what others see as the "choice" to stay in the sex industry.

Prostitution and the drug trade go hand in hand. Customers for sex often are buyers for drugs also. Many pimps are supporting their own habits, and dealing drugs as well.

The pimps consider drugs and alcohol a cost of doing business. Without the chemicals, their "livestock" may become psychotic or commit suicide. In addition to the brainwashing and violence, addiction provides a form of control. Drugs also produce isolation from people who otherwise might try to protect a victim or help her escape. The only creature less worthy of help than a prostitute, is an addicted prostitute.

The health effects of prostitution are devastating. Prostitution, especially in childhood, is at least as effective as war in producing post-traumatic stress disorder. Survivors usually have some combination of depression, anxiety, and dissociative disorders. Brain damage, psychosis, and suicide are common. Long term psychiatric disability, serious medical illness, and the effects of accumulating injuries shorten lives.


People who have had luckier lives, as well as those who profit from the sex industry in some way, frequently refer to prostitution and pornography as "victim-less crimes". They point to a tiny fraction of sex workers who actually might be involved by choice. They selectively read history to find some tiny minority, somewhere, at some time, who gained something in the sex business.

The very selectiveness of their attention indicates that, on some level, they know that for almost everyone, involvement in the sex industry is a terrible misfortune.

As many an old cop will say, "Anyone who thinks prostitution is a victimless crime, hasn't seen it up close."

Services for women and children escaping prostitution
(Updated 02/27/04) United States

Sex Industry Survivors' Anonymous
888-702-7273 (toll-free)
Mission: Support groups for women and men who are currently in the sex industry and are trying to get out or who have already gotten out but are trying to find recovery. Membership requirement is a desire to leave the sex industry.
Services: Peer support meetings of survivors talking to one another. Meeting formats may be downloaded at no cost to all who want to set up local meetings.


DIGNITY Programs
Phoenix Arizona
(Developing Individual Growth and New Independence Through Yourself)
Catholic Social Services
E-Mail: dignityprograms@diocesephoenix.org

Mission: 24 hour highly structured, long term residential program focused on building self-esteem and self-sufficiency. It provides the physical and psychological distance necessary for women to interrupt the cycle of dependence, substance abuse and incarceration due to prostitution.

Prostitution Diversion Program
Mission: Education, advocacy and case management for individuals arrested in the City of Phoenix on prostitution/solicitation charges. Focusing on life style change, self-sufficiency, addressing addictions and other supportive services.

DIGNITY Jail Outreach
Mission: Educational Program based in the County Jail. Focusing on breaking the cycle of incarceration due to prostitution.

DIGNITY Street Outreach
Mission: Providing resources for women and children actively engaging in prostitution.


Children of the Night
Los Angeles California
818-908-4474, 800-551-1300 (hotline)
http://www.childrenofthenight.orgMission: Quitting prostitution is like quitting the Mafia. Dedicated to assisting children aged 11-17 who are sexually abused and who prostitute on the streets for food and shelter.
Services: shelter, rescue from pimps, counseling, GED preparation, ticket to go home, medical appointments, court appearances, se habla Espanol.

Mary Magdalene Project
South Gate, California
http://www.prostitution-recovery.orgMission: longterm residential rehabilitation program for women who want to leave prostitution
Services: food, clothing, shelter, medical care, individual and group counseling, job training for 18 months to 2 years

San Francisco California
promise@sirius.comMission: Sexual exploitation of women occurs when women are coerced into and kept in through violence, prejudice and a lack of other options. Our mission is to support women who want to break out of harmful living situations and to a healthy life style.
Services: peer counseling, street outreach, referrals, support groups, clothing.

Safe House
San Francisco, California
Mission: a clean and sober living community for women leaving prostitution
Services: housing for up to 4 months, food, clothing, life skills and self empowerment groups, case management.

Standing Against Global Exploitation (SAGE)
San Francisco California
sage@dnai.comMission: committed to improving the lives of women who are survivors of sexual exploitation, violence, and prostitution.
Peer support, referrals, day treatment program, clothing assistance, massage, acupuncture. community education.

District of Colombia

Helping Individual Prostitutes Survive (HIPS)
Washington DC
Mission: to assist young women and men up to and including age 21 in Washington, DC who choose to leave prostitution.
Services: street outreach, referrals, legal assistance, peer support, job preparation, emergency housing, food, clothing.


Sisters Offering Support (SOS)
Honolulu, Hawaii
(808) 941-5554
http://www.soshawaii.orgMission: prostitution prevention and intervention through education and awareness.
Services: Individual counseling and peer group support, referral to community resources, crisis line, community education.


Advocates for Prostituted Women and Girls
Chicago, Illinois
PO Box 268807, Chicago Illinois 60626
Phone: 773-764-0987
Mission: young women's empowerment group for teen girls and young women who have traded sex for money and survival
Services: support group, phone support, childcare, transportation assistance.

Genesis House
Chicago Illinois
email: residential@genesishouse.orgMission: provide an environment for women caught in systems of prostitution so they can make a free choice; and to help those who choose to leave prostitution by offering services and support.
Services: crisis shelter, long-term residential program, assessment, referrals, outreach.


You Are Never Alone (YANA)
Baltimore, Maryland
Mission: reach out in love to women suffering the traumas and dangers of the street , offering alternatives to those who are interested in change.
Services: peer support, group counseling, crisis intervention, referrals, legal, housing and employment services.


Breaking Free
St. Paul Minnesota
breaking@qwest.netMission: fights commercial sexual exploitation by providing direct services for all prostituted women and girls and by educating the community to recognize prostitution as systematic violence against women.
Services: Afro-centric, case management, support groups, housing, mentorship, community court, school for johns.

Prostitution to Independence, Dignity and Equality (PRIDE)
Minneapolis Minnesota
Services: social services, case management, support group, court intervention and diversion, transitional housing, mental health therapy, development of public policy and legal proposals regarding prostitution.

Volunteers of America Women's Recovery Center
Minneapolis-Saint Paul Minnesota
mn-fjc@excite.comResidential program with chemical dependency treatment, mental health therapy, living skills.

(Victims Exploited Recovering On Needed Individual Counseling And Services)
Greater Kansas City Area
913-940-0505 in Kansas City
816-728-0004 MO Answered 24 hours

Our mission is to partner with victims of prostitution and encourage them to make lifestyle changes, which lead to recovery of mind, body and spirit. Survivors of the sex industry designed and operate the program. Services include: 24 hour crisis line; drop-in center; street out reach; peer counseling; support groups; referrals; court advocacy; diversion programs; john school and community education.


Salvation Army Wellspring Program
3612 Cuming, Omaha Nebraska 68131
Mission: Advocacy and support for women, men, and their families as they are in process of escaping prostitution. Also offer services to those who solicit prostitution.
Services: Holistic approach, using group therapy, case managment, individual and family therapy, limited material assistance, monthly outings, transportation, referrals.


Sex Workers Anonymous (formerly called Prostitutes Anonymous)
Las Vegas, Nevada
recoveryfromsexwork@hotmail.comhttp://www.sexworkersanonymous.com(702) 438-1470
P.O. Box 3279 North Las Vegas, Nevada, 89036 USA
Mission: To provide support for those who are leaving sex work.
Services: Peer support by ex-sex workers, group meetings for support, and a recovery book like AA's Big Book that has stories in it from ex-sex workers who detail how they got out of the industry and their adjustments afterwards.

New York

Paul and Lisa
New York, New York
860-767-7660, 800-518-2238
paulandlisaprogram@snet.netTransitional living services


Council for Prostitution Alternatives (CPA)
Portland Oregon
Phone 503-282-1082
cpa1999@teleport.comMission: support women and children affected by the sex industry to find safer, healthier life paths by exploring alternatives in a safe and supportive structure.
Services: case management, emergency services, educational and peer support group

Lola Greene Baldwin Foundation for Recovery
Portland, Oregon,
P.O. Box 42393 Portland, OR USA 97242
Phone: 503-236-7244
p_barrera2000@yahoo.comMission: To help people escape prostitution, survive, and recover from its long-term effects. To provide education about the effects of prostitution on those used in it, and its effects on the larger community.
Services: Crisis intervention, case management, legal advocacy, community education programs. Drop-in center is open to people of any age, gender, sexual orientation, whether currently prostituting, or prostituted in the past. We have male and female staff, as well as survivor and nonsurvivor staff.


Madison Wisconsin
Referrals, case management

Agencies outside of Canada and USA offering services to women and children escaping prostitution


Quezon City, Philippines
http://avoca.vicnet.net.au/~win/bukal.htmMission: to act as a catlyst towards the formation of a nurturing organization of prostituted women in Quezon City grounded in a human rights and feminist perspective.
Services: help women to understand the gender issues in prostitution, to know and assert their human rights, regain their self-worth and make decisions in their lives according to the options they themselves define.

Costa Rica and Mexico

Casa Alianza / Covenant House
PO Box 025216, Miami Florida 33102-5216
Phone in Costa Rica: +506-253-5439 or 253-6338
http://www.casa-alianza.orgMission: defends and rehabilitates street children in Mexico and Central America, with regional office in San José, Costa Rica.

South Africa

The House
Hillbrow, Johannesburg, South Africa
http://www.yesunet.org/thehouseMission: retrieve girl children and young women from prostitution and drug abuse. We endeavor to be a one-stop centre where youth care workers can refer clients to resources or offer direct assistance.
Services: meals, overnight shelter, individual and group counselling, HIV education. The House also operates a 3-month shelter program where employment skills and life skills are taught.

List compiled by Melissa Farley PhD, Prostitution Research & Education (PRE) http://www.prostitutionresearch.com San Francisco California USA.
Contact PRE at mfarley@prostitutionresearch.com to contribute information on additional agencies. Updated 5-5-01

"It takes a village to create a prostitute."
P.R.E.: Melissa Farley, PhD is at
Current Webmaster:
Nitecat Media

US Federal and State Prostitution Laws and Related Punishments
I. Federal Laws
II. State Laws (All 50 states & DC)
III. Prostitution Laws in Nevada by County
I. Federal Law
Title Citation Excerpt Punishment
1. Inadmissible aliens Title 8 Ch. 12 Sub Ch. II Part II Sec. 1182 "Any alien who-- (i) is coming to the United States solely, principally, or incidentally to engage in prostitution, or has engaged in prostitution within 10 years of the date of application for a visa, admission, or adjustment of status...is inadmissible." Denied admission into US
2. Importation of alien for immoral purpose Title 8 Ch. 12 Sub Ch. II Part VIII Sec. 1328 "The importation into the United States of any alien for the purpose of prostitution, or for any other immoral purpose, is forbidden." Up to 10 yrs and/or fine
3. Prostitution near military and naval establishments Title 18 Part I Ch. 67 Sec. 1384 "Within such reasonable distance of any military or naval camp, station, fort, post, yard, base, cantonment, training or mobilization place as the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Air Force, or any two or all of them shall determine to be needful to the efficiency, health, and welfare of the Army, the Navy, or the Air Force, and shall designate and publish in general orders or bulletins, whoever engages in prostitution....prohibited shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both." Up to 1 yr and/or fine
4. Interstate and foreign travel or transportation in aid of racketeering enterprises Title 18 Part I Ch. 95 Sec. 1952 "Whoever travels in interstate or foreign commerce or uses the mail or any facility in interstate or foreign commerce, with intent to... otherwise promote, manage, establish, carry on, or facilitate the promotion, management, establishment, or carrying on, of any unlawful activity...shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both." Up to 5 yrs and/or fine
5. Transportation generally Title 18 Part I Ch. 117 Sec. 2421 "Whoever knowingly transports any individual in interstate or foreign commerce, or in any Territory or Possession of the United States, with intent that such individual engage in prostitution, or in any sexual activity for which any person can be charged with a criminal offense, or attempts to do so, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both." Up to 10 yrs and/or fine
6. Coercion and enticement Title 18 Part I Ch. 117 Sec. 2422 "Whoever knowingly persuades, induces, entices, or coerces any individual to travel in interstate or foreign commerce, or in any Territory or Possession of the United States, to engage in prostitution, or in any sexual activity for which any person can be charged with a criminal offense, or attempts to do so, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both." Up to 20 yrs and/or fine
7. Filing factual statement about alien individual Title 18 Part I Ch. 117 Sec. 2424 "Whoever... controls... house... for the purpose of prostitution knowing... that the individual is an alien, shall file with the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization a statement in writing setting forth the name of such individual, the place at which that individual is kept, and all facts as to the date of that individual's entry into the United States, the port through which that individual entered, that individual's age, nationality, and parentage, and concerning that individual's procuration to come to this country within the knowledge of such person; and [w]hoever fails within five business... to file such statement concerning such alien individual with the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization... [s]hall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both." Up to 10 yrs and/or fine
8. Character investigations Title 25 Ch. 34 Sec. 3207 "The minimum standards of character that are to be prescribed under this section shall ensure that none of the individuals appointed to positions described in subsection (a) of this section have been found guilty of, or entered a plea of nolo contendere or guilty to, any felonious offense, or any of two or more misdemeanor offenses, under Federal, State, or tribal law involving crimes of violence; sexual assault, molestation, exploitation, contact or prostitution; crimes against persons; or offenses committed against children." Denied employment
9. Registration determinations Title 29 Ch. 20 Sub Ch. I Sec. 1813 "In accordance with regulations, the Secretary may refuse to issue or renew, or may suspend or revoke, a certificate of registration (including a certificate of registration as an employee of a farm labor contractor) if the applicant or holder--...has been convicted within the preceding five years..., prostitution..." Denied a certificate of registration 

II. State Laws (All 50 states & DC)
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

State Penalty for Prostitutes
(Crime Classification) Penalty for Customers
(Crime Classification) Penalty for Pimps
(Crime Classification) Penalty for Brothel Owners
(Crime Classification)
1. Alabama Up to 1 yr and/or $6,000
(Class A misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and/or $6,000
(Class A misdemeanor) 1-10 yrs and/or $15,000
(Class C felony) 1-10 yrs and/or $15,000
(Class C felony)
2. Alaska Up to 90 days and/or $2,000
(Class B misdemeanor) Up to 90 days and/or $2,000
(Class B misdemeanor) Up to 5 yrs and/or $50,000
(Class C felony) Up to 5 yrs and/or $50,000
(Class C felony)
3. Arizona 1st offense 15 days, 2nd 30 days, 3rd 60 days, 4+ offenses 180 days-1.5 yrs
(First offense class 1 misdemeanor, 4 or more offenses are a class 5 felony) Up to 30 days and/or $500
(Class 3 misdemeanor) 18 months and/or $150,000
(Class 5 felony) 18 months and/or $150,000
(Class 5 felony)
4. Arkansas Up to 90 days and/or $500, then up to 1 yr and/or $1,000
(First offense class B misdemeanor, subsequent offense class A misdemeanor) Up to 90 days and/or $500, then up tp 1 yr and/or $1,000
(First offense class B misdemeanor, subsequent offense class A misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and/or $1,000
(Class A misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and/or $1,000
(Class A misdemeanor)
5. California Up to 1 yr and/or $1,000
(Misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and/or $1,000
(Misdemeanor) 3-6 yrs in a state prison
(Felony) 3-6 yrs in a state prison
6. Colorado Up to 6 months and/or $50-$750
(Class 3 misdemeanor) Up 6 months and/or $500, then 6-18 months and/or $500-$5,000
(First offense class 1 petty offense, 3+ offenses class 1 misdemeanor) 4-12 yrs and/or $3,000-$750,000
(Class 3 felony) 3 months-1 yr and/or $250-$1,000
(Class 2 misdemeanor)
7. Connecticut Up to 1 yr and/or $2,000
(Class A misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and/or $2,000
(Class A misdemeanor) 1-10 yrs and/or $10,000
(Class C felony) 1-10 yrs and/or $10,000
(Class C felony)
8. Delaware Up to 6 months and/or $1,150
(Class B misdemeanor) Up to 30 days and a minimum mandatory fine of $500
(Misdemeanor) Up to 5 yrs and/or a fine
(Class E felony) Up to 5 yrs and/or a fine
(Class E felony)
9. District of Columbia First offense 1-90 days and $500, 2nd 1-135 days and $750, 3+ 1-180 days and $1,000 First offense 1-90 days and $500, 2nd 1-135 days and $750, 3+ 1-180 days and $1,000 Up to 5 yrs and/or $5,000
(Felony) Up to 5 yrs and/or $5,000
10. Florida First offense 2nd degree misdemeanor, 2nd offense 1 misdemeanor, 3+ offenses 3 felony 2nd degree misdemeanor-3 felony
$500 fine 3rd degree felony First offense 2nd degree misdemeanor, subsequent offenses 1 misdemeanor
11. Georgia Up to 1 yr and/or $1,000
(Misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and/or $1,000
(Misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and/or $5,000
(Misdemeanor of a high and aggravated nature) Up to 1 yr and/or $5,000
(Misdemeanor of a high and aggravated nature)
12. Hawaii 30 days and/or $500
(Petty misdemeanor) 30 days and/or $500
(Petty misdemeanor) Up to 5 yrs and/or $10,000
(Class C felony) Up to 5 yrs and/or $10,000
(Class C felony)
13. Idaho 1-6 months and/or $500, then 1-5 yrs
(First offense misdemeanor, 3+ offenses are a felony) 1-6 months and/or $500, then 1-5 yrs
(First offense misdemeanor, 3+ offenses are a felony 2-20 yrs and/or a fine of $1,000-$50,000
(Felony) 2-20 yrs and/or a fine of $1,000-$50,000
14. Illinois Up to 1 yr and/or $2,500 then 1-3 yrs and/or $25,000
(First offense class A misdemeanor, subsequent convictions are a 4 felony) Up to 1 yr and/or $2,500 then 1-3 yrs and/or $25,000
(First offense class A misdemeanor, subsequent convictions are a 4 felony) Up to 1 yr and/or $2,500 then 1-3 yrs and/or $25,000
(First offense class A misdemeanor, subsequent convictions are a 4 felony) Up to 1 yr and/or $2,500 then 1-3 yrs and/or $25,000
(First offense class A misdemeanor, subsequent convictions are a 4 felony)
15. Indiana Up to 1 yr and/or $5,000, then 6 months-3 yrs and/or $10,000
(First offense class A misdemeanor, 3+ convictions are a D felony) Up to 1 yr and/or $5,000, then 6 months-3 yrs and/or $10,000
(First offense class A misdemeanor, 3+ convictions are a D felony) 2-8 yrs and/or $10,000
(Class C felony) 2-8 yrs and/or $10,000
(Class C felony)
16. Iowa Up to 2 yrs and/or $500-$5,000
(Aggravated misdemeanor) Up to 2 yrs and/or $500-$5,000
(Aggravated misdemeanor) Up to 5 yrs and/or $750-$7,500
(Class D felony) Up to 5 yrs and/or $750-$7,500
(Class D felony)
17. Kansas Up to 6 months and/or $1,000
(Class B nonperson misdemeanor) Up to 1 month and/or $500
(Class C misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and/or $2,500 then 1-5 yr and/or $100,000
(First offense class A person misdemeanor then subsequent convictions are severity level 7) Up to 1 yr and/or $2,500 then 1-5 yr and/or $100,000
(First offense class A person misdemeanor then subsequent convictions are severity level 7)
18. Kentucky Up to 90 days and/or $250
(Class B misdemeanor) Up to 90 days and/or $250
(Class B misdemeanor) 1-5 yrs and/or $1,000-$10,000
(Class D felony) 1-5 yrs and/or $1,000-$10,000
(Class D felony)
19. Louisiana First offense up to 6 months and/or $500, 2nd offense up to 2 yrs and/or $250-$2,000, 3+ convictions 2-4 yrs and $500-$4,000 Up to 6 months and/or $500 5 yrs and/or $5,000 5 yrs and/or $5,000
20. Maine Up to 6 months and/or $1,000 then up to 1 yr and/or $2,000
(First offense Class E crime, then consequent offenses class D crime) Up to 6 months and/or $1,000 then up to 1 yr and/or $2,000
(First offense Class E crime, then consequent offenses class D crime) Up to 1 yr and/or $2,000
(Class D crime) Up to 1 yr and/or $2,000
(Class D crime)
21. Maryland Up to 1 yr and/or $500
(Misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and/or $500
(Misdemeanor) Up to 10 yrs and/or $10,000
(Misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and/or $500
22. Massachusetts Up to 1 yr and/or $500 Up to 1 yr and/or $500 5 yrs and $5,000 5 yrs and $5,000
23. Michigan First offense up 93 days and/or $500, 2nd offense up to 1 yr and/or $1,000, 3+ convictions up to 2 yrs and/or $2,000
(1-2 offense misdemeanor, 3rd offense felony) First offense up 93 days and/or $500, 2nd offense up to 1 yr and/or $1,000, 3+ convictions up to 2 yrs and/or $2,000
(1-2 offense misdemeanor, 3rd offense felony) Up to 20 yrs
(Felony) 5 yrs or $2,500
24. Minnesota First offense is up to 90 days and/or $1,000, consequence offense is up to 1 yr and/or $3,000 First offense is up to 90 days and/or $500-$1,000, consequence offense is up to 1 yr and/or $1,500-$3,000 Up to 15 yrs and/or $30,000 Up to 15 yrs and/or $30,000
25. Mississippi 6 months and/or $200 6 months and/or $200 6 months and/or $200 6 months and/or $200
26. Missouri 30 days-6 months and/or $500
(Class B misdemeanor) 30 days-6 months and/or $500
(Class B misdemeanor) Up to 10 yrs and/or $5,000
(Class C felony) Up to 10 yrs and/or $5,000
(Class C felony)
27. Montana 6 months and/or $500 First offense up to 1 yr and/or $1,000, consequence offense up to 5 yr and/or $10,000 10 yr and/or $50,000 10 yr and/or $50,000
28. Nebraska Up to 1 yr and/or $1,000
(Class I misdemeanor) First offense at least $200, consequent convictions at least $500
(First offense class I misdemeanor, subsequent offenses class IV felony) Up to 5 yrs and/or $10,000
(Class IV felony) Up to 1 yr and/or $1,000
(Class I misdemeanor)
29. Nevada
See Section III below for legal prostition Up to 6 months and/or $1,000
(Misdemeanor) Up to 6 months and/or $1,000
(Misdemeanor) 1-4 yrs and/or $5,000
(Category D felony) Up to 6 months and/or $1,000
30. New Hampshire Up to 1 yr and $2,000
(Misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and $2,000
(Misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and $2,000
(Misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and $2,000
31. New Jersey First offense up to 6 months and/or fine, consequent convictions up to 18 months and/or fine
(First disorderly persons offense, subsequent offenses crime of the fourth degree) First offense up to 6 months and/or fine, consequent convictions up to 18 months and/or fine
(First disorderly persons offense, subsequent offenses crime of the fourth degree) 3-5 yrs and/or fine
(Crime of the third degree) 3-5 yrs and/or fine
(Crime of the third degree)
32. New Mexico First offense up to 6 months in a county jail and/or $500, subsequent offenses up to 1 yr in a county jail and/or $1,000
(First offense petty misdemeanor, subsequent offenses misdemeanor) First offense up to 6 months in a county jail and/or $500, subsequent offenses up to 1 yr in a county jail and/or $1,000
(First offense petty misdemeanor, subsequent offenses misdemeanor) Up to 18 months and/or $5,000
(Fourth degree felony) Up to 18 months and/or $5,000
(Fourth degree felony)
33. New York Up to 3 months and/or $500
(Class B misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and/or $1,000
(Class A misdemeanor) Up to 7 yrs and/or $5,000
(Class D felony) Up to 7 yrs and/or $5,000
(Class D felony)
34. North Carolina Up to 45 days and a fine
(Class 1 misdemeanor) Up to 45 days and a fine
(Class 1 misdemeanor) Up to 45 days and a fine
(Class 1 misdemeanor) Up to 45 days and a fine
(Class 1 misdemeanor)
35. North Dakota Up to 30 days and/or $1,000
(Class B misdemeanor) Up to 30 days and/or $1,000
(Class B misdemeanor) Up to 5 yrs and/or $5,000
(Class C felony) Up to 5 yrs and/or $5,000
(Class C felony)
36. Ohio Up to 60 days and/or $500
(Third degree misdemeanor) Up to 60 days and/or $500
(Third degree misdemeanor) Up to 180 days and/or $1,000
(First degree misdemeanor) Up to 180 days and/or $1,000
(First degree misdemeanor)
37. Oklahoma First offense 30 days-1 yr or up to $2,500, 2nd offense 30 days-1 yr or up to $5,000, consequent offenses 30 days-1 yr or up to $7,500
(Misdemeanor) First offense 30 days-1 yr or up to $2,500, 2nd offense 30 days-1 yr or up to $5,000, consequent offenses 30 days-1 yr or up to $7,500
(Misdemeanor) First offense 30 days-1 yr or up to $2,500, 2nd offense 30 days-1 yr or up to $5,000, consequent offenses 30 days-1 yr or up to $7,500
(Misdemeanor) First offense 30 days-1 yr or up to $2,500, 2nd offense 30 days-1 yr or up to $5,000, consequent offenses 30 days-1 yr or up to $7,500
38. Oregon Up to 1 yr and/or $6,250
(Class A misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and/or $6,250
(Class A misdemeanor) Up to 5 yrs and/or $125,000
(Class C felony) Up to 5 yrs and/or $125,000
(Class C felony)
39. Pennsylvania First two offenses up to 1 yr, 3rd offense up to 2 yrs, and subsequent offenses up to 5 yr
(1st and 2nd offense a 3rd deg. misdemeanor, 3rd offense a 2nd deg. misdemeanor, 4+ offenses 1st deg. misdemeanor) First two offenses up to 1 yr, 3rd offense up to 2 yrs, and subsequent offenses up to 5 yr
(1st and 2nd offense a 3rd deg. misdemeanor, 3rd offense a 2nd deg. misdemeanor, 4+ offenses 1st deg. misdemeanor) Up to 7 yrs
(3rd deg. felony) Up to 7 yrs
(3rd deg. felony)
40. Rhode Island

[Editor's Note: Indoor prostitution became legal in 1980 as a result of an unintential legal loophole created by legislators when enacting laws targeting street prostitution. The state passed new legislation to close this loophole on Nov. 3, 2009.]
Up to 6 months and/or $250-$1,000, subsequent convictions up to 1 yr and/or $500-$1,000
(Misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and/or $250-$1,000, subsequent convictions up to 1 yr and/or $500-$1,000
(Misdemeanor)Up to 6 months and/or $500-$1,000, subsequent convictions up to 1 yr and/or $750-$1,000
(Only applies to soliciting from motor vehicles) First offense 1-5 yrs and $2,000-$5,000, subsequent convictions 3-10 yrs and $5,000-$10,000
(Pandering) First offense 1-5 yrs and $2,000-$5,000, subsequent convictions 3-10yrs and $5,000-$10,000

41. South Carolina First offense up to 30 days or $200, 2nd offense up to 6 months and $1,000, 3+ at least 1 yr and/or up to $3,000 First offense up to 30 days or $200, 2nd offense up to 6 months and $1,000, 3+ at least 1 yr and/or up to $3,000 First offense up to 30 days or $200, 2nd offense up to 6 months and $1,000, 3+ at least 1 yr and/or up to $3,000 First offense up to 30 days or $200, 2nd offense up to 6 months and $1,000, 3+ at least 1 yr and/or up to $3,000
42. South Dakota Up to 1 yr in county jail and/or $2,000
(Class 1 misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr in county jail and/or $2,000
(Class 1 misdemeanor) Up to 2 yrs and/or $4,000
(Class 6 felony) Up to 2 yrs and/or $4,000
(Class 6 felony)
43. Tennessee Up to 6 months and/or $500
(Class B misdemeanor) Up to 6 months and/or $500
(Class B misdemeanor) 1-6 yrs and/or up to $3,000
(Class E felony) 1-6 yrs and/or up to $3,000
(Class E felony)
44. Texas First offense up to 180 days and/or $2,000, 2nd up to 1 yr and/or $4,000, 3+ 180 days-2 yrs and/or $10,000
(First offense is a class B misdemeanor, 2nd A misdemeanor, 3+ is a state jail felony) First offense up to 180 days and/or $2,000, 2nd up to 1 yr and/or $4,000, 3+ 180 days-2 yrs and/or $10,000
(First offense is a class B misdemeanor, 2nd A misdemeanor, 3+ is a state jail felony) 2-10 yrs and up to $10,000
(3rd degree felony) 2-10 yrs and up to $10,000
(3rd degree felony)
45. Utah First offense up to 6 months and/or $1,000, subsequent offenses up to 1 yr and/or $2,500
(First offense class B misdemeanor, subsequent offenses are class A misdemeanors) Up to 6 months and/or $1,000
(Class B misdemeanor) Up to 5 yrs and/or $5,000
(3rd degree felony) Up to 5 yrs and/or $5,000
(3rd degree felony)
46. Vermont First offense up to 1 yr or $100, second offense up to 3 yrs First offense up to 1 yr or $100, second offense up to 3 yrs 1-10 yrs and/or $200-$2,000 1-10 yrs and/or $200-$2,000
47. Virginia Up to 1 yr and/or $2,500
(Class 1 misdemeanor) Up to 1 yr and/or $2,500
(Class 1 misdemeanor) 2-10 yrs and up to $100,000
(Class 4 felony) 2-10 yrs and up to $100,000
(Class 4 felony)
48. Washington Up to 90 days and/or $1,000
(Misdemeanor) Up to 90 days and/or $1,000
(Misdemeanor) Up to 5 yrs and/or $5,000
(Class C felony) Up to 5 yrs and/or $5,000
(Class C felony)
49. West Virginia 60 days-6 months and $50-$100 First offense 60 days-6 months and $50-$100, 2nd offense 6 months-1 yr and $100-$200, consequent offenses 1-3 yrs First offense 6 months-1 yr and $100-$500, subsequent offenses 1-3 yrs First offense 6 months-1 yr and $100-$250, subsequent offenses 1-5 yrs
50. Wisconsin Up to 9 months and/or $10,000
(Class A misdemeanor) Up to 9 months and/or $10,000
(Class A misdemeanor) Up to 12.5 yrs and/or $25,000
(Class F felony) Up to 6 yrs and/or $10,000
(Class H felony)
51. Wyoming Up to 6 months and/or $750
(Misdemeanor) Up to 6 months and/or $750
(Misdemeanor) Up to 3 yrs and/or $3,000
(Felony) Up to 3 yrs and/or $3,000
State Penalty for Prostitutes
(Crime Classification) Penalty for Customers
(Crime Classification) Penalty for Pimps
(Crime Classification) Penalty for Brothel Owners
(Crime Classification)

III. Prostitution Laws in Nevada by County
According to Nevada state law all prostitutes must use a condom, and must be tested weekly for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and monthly for HIV. Brothel owners and prostitutes are required to be licensed and registered, and to pass a background check. To learn more, read the full-text of Nevada's prostitution laws.
County Legal Status Fees for Brothel Ownership per Year
(The fees below only include those specifically levied against operating brothels)
1. Carson City Illegal Not Applicable
2. Churchill County (PDF) 4.7MB Legal Unavailable
3. Clark County Illegal Not Applicable
4. Douglas County Illegal Not Applicable
5. Elko County Legal only in cities granting permission Depends on city
6. Esmeralda County Legal Unavailable
7. Eureka County No laws legalizing or prohibiting Not Applicable
8. Humboldt County Legal only in cities granting permission Depends on city
9. Lander County (PDF) 1.8MB Legal $200
10. Lincoln County Illegal Not Applicable
11. Lyon County (PDF) 1.9MB Legal 1-20 Rooms = $25,600
21-40 = $29,600
41+ = $33,600
12. Mineral County Legal Unavailable
13. Nye County (PDF) 3.5MB Legal 0-5 Prostitutes = $7,500
6-10 = $14,000
11-25 = $30,000
26+ = $150,000
14. Pershing County Legal only in cities granting permission Depends on city
15. Storey County (PDF) 3.5MB Legal $75,000
16. Washoe County Illegal Not Applicable
17. White Pine County Legal only in cities granting permission Depends on city

A chart titled "A State-By-State Look at Consensual Crime," in Peter McWilliams' 1996 book Ain't Nobody's Business If You Do: The Absurdity of Consensual Crimes in Our Free Country, compares the legal status of various consensual sexual activities such as adultery, prostitution, and pornography (plus assisted suicide) across 50 states plus the District of Columbia (DC).

Presented below are federal and state laws on prostitution within the United States. Prostitution is illegal in the United States with the exception of 11 Nevada counties. On Nov. 3, 2009, Rhode Island closed a legal loophole that had allowed indoor prostitution to exist since 1980.

Laws involving human trafficking or child prostitution are not included. Clicking on the hyperlinked titles, states, and counties will bring up the full text of each law. The information was last updated Nov. 4, 2009. While reasonable efforts have been made to assure the accuracy of the data provided, do not rely on this information without first checking an official edition of the applicable law.

Sex Trafficking Victims, Victims of Sex Slavery, Human Trafficking Victims, Prostitution myths, liesSex Trafficking – A Man’s point of view of Sex Slavery, Rape, Prostitution SEX TRAFFICKING, HUMAN TRAFFICKING, SEX SLAVERY, PROSTITUTION, VIDEOS, MOVIES, FILMS, INTERVIEWS Sex Trafficking, Sex Slavery, Human Trafficking Victims The Victims of Sex Trafficking THE ABUSE AND CONSEQUENCES OF ARBITRARY ENFORCEMENT OF PROSTITUTION LAWS, SEX TRAFFICKING Victims of Sex Trafficking, Sex Slavery, HELP, Victims, Human Trafficking Victims, Prostitution, Denver, Colorado, RESEARCH, STATISTICS, LIES, FACTS December 14, 2011Human Trafficking movie, videos, TV news show, interviews, films, facts on Sex Slavery, Prostitution victims, Myths This is what Anti-prostitution groups including the Salvation Army, Ashton Kutcher, Demi Moore, Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott, government officials, and various anti-prostitution groups: Traffick911, Not for Sale, Change-org, A Future Not A Past, Polaris Project, Salvation Army, Women’s Funding Network, and the Dallas Women’s Foundation,  believe.

They want to promote and encourage – Telling lies to the public about Sex Trafficking, and Prostitution:Problem Solvers: Anti-Child Sex Trafficking Charity caught lying and stealing money

Dallas TV News show about the super bowl sex trafficking myth:


A future not a past – Kaffie McCullough on why she used made up bogus child sex trafficking, human trafficking, sex slavery statistics :A future not a past  -  audio interview with Kaffie McCullough on why she used made up bogus child sex trafficking, human trafficking, sex slavery study.Ashton Kutcher, Demi Moore are telling lies about sex trafficking:

BBC Newsnight TV Show interview:

Dallas TV News show about the super bowl sex trafficking myth:


Ashton Kutcher’s response:   http://aplusk.posterous.com/why-fight-it-could-be-your-daughter-your-niec

Kaffie McCullough admits they needed to invent scary sex trafficking statistics to get government funding.



http://sextrafficking.myblogsite.comhttp://www.wfaa.com/v/?i=114983179   Dallas News video about the super bowl child sex slave myth

Dallas TV News show article about super bowl sex slave myth:




Human Trafficking Facts, Colorado, Denver, Colorado Springs, Sex Trafficking Facts, The Facts about Sex Trafficking, The Facts about Sex Slavery, The facts about Human Trafficking, Sex Slavery Facts,  Human Trafficking Fact Sheet, Prostitution Fact Sheet, The Truth, Myths, Lies, Facts about Sex Trafficking Videos, Films, Movies, interviews and Sex Slavery, Factual research papers, reports, No victims of forced prostitution found.

Human Trafficking Statistics are exaggerated, with NO proof, NO evidence, NO victims of forced prostitution.

There is a lot of controversy over the topics of sex trafficking, sex slavery, human trafficking and forced prostitution. Regarding what the definition is, the research methods used to find statistics,  what the definition of a victim is,  the number of child and adult victims involved,  forced vs. unforced sex, how the actual prostitutes themselves feel about it, and legal vs. illegal prostitution.

There is a growing number of well respected researchers, journalists, scientists, professors, that have concluded in their research that the sex trafficking, sex slavery concept is based on emotion, morals, and monetary funding rather than facts, evidence and proof.   They state that very few kidnapped, forced against their will, physically abused, raped sex slave prostitutes for profit have been found throughout the world. Their research concludes that women who enter into this type of work do so of their own free will.   They also state that there are many anti-prostitution groups who simply do not like the idea of consensual adult prostitution and have distorted the facts in order to push their agenda and receive funding and money into their organizations in the form of donations,  grants and to change the laws about prostitution.  They state that these anti-prostitution groups use made up child sex trafficking statistics which they have no proof or evidence of in order to gain public acceptance for their cause.

Women who travel of their own free will to engage in sex work for money, normally do not tell their families, friends, relatives the real reason they are traveling.  They usually tell the people in their lives back home that they are traveling to engage in legitimate work such as working in a restaurant, hotel, etc.   They do this because they do not want to be thought of as a slut, whore etc.  in their home town. These women would never think of working as a prostitute in their home town where they know a lot of people and would bring disgrace on their family. 

Many anti-prostitution groups distort the facts about this saying that these women were tricked into it against their will expecting to work in a legitimate business.   This is not correct. The women knew about the sex work, but do not want the people in their lives back home to know about it, since it is considered very bad to be thought of as a whore, slut, etc. and would bring disgrace to their family. Millions of USA government dollars are being spent to fight a crime that is extremely rare. The US government assumes that all prostitutes on Earth are sex trafficked slaves – Who are kidnapped and forced into having sex against their will.  This is NOT true of MOST Prostitution.

This website blog has some very important links and information about sex trafficking, that you should read. It is updated frequently.   It is important to let the truth be told.   The lying people get all the press.  It is time for the people who tell the truth to get the press.

The numbers of sex trafficking sex slaves:

There is a lot of controversy over the numbers of adult woman who are forced sex slaves. The real factual answer is that no one knows.  There is hard evidence that the sex slavery/sex trafficking issue continues to report false information and is greatly exaggerated by politicians, the media, and aid groups, feminist and religious organizations that receive funds from the government,  The estimate of adult women who become new sex slaves ranges anywhere from 40 million a year to 5,000 per year all of which appear to be much too high.  They have no evidence to back up these numbers, and no one questions them about it.  Their sources have no sources, and are made up numbers. In fact if some of these numbers are to believed which have either not changed or have been increased each year for the past twenty years, all woman on earth would currently be sex slaves.  Yet, very few real forced against their will sex slaves have been found.

It is not easy for criminals to engage in this acitvity:

Sex trafficking is illegal and the pentities are very severe.  It is very difficult to force someone to be a sex slave, they would have to have 24 hour guards posted and be watched 365 days a year, 24 hours per day. Have the threat of violence if they refused, and have no one notice and complain to the authorities or police. They would need to hide from the general public yet still manage to see customers from the general public and not have the customers turn the traffickers in to the police.  They would need to provide them with medical care, food, shelter, and have all their basic needs met.  They would need to have the sex slaves put on a fake front that they enjoyed what they were doing, act flirtatious and do their job well.  They would have to deal with the authorities looking for the missing women, and hide any money they may make, since it comes from illegal activity. They must do all of this while constantly trying to prevent the sex slaves from escaping and reporting them to the police. They would need to prevent the general public from reporting them into the police. This is extremely difficult to do, which makes this activity rare. These criminals would be breaking dozens of major laws not just one.  Kidnapping itself is a serious crime.  There are many laws against sex trafficking, sex slavery, kidnapping, sex abuse, rape, sexual harassment etc.   If someone is behind it, they will be breaking many serious laws, be in big trouble, and will go to jail for many long years.

While there are some women who may be true victims. And it is possible for this to happen in rare situations. This is a small rare group of people and that the numbers and scale of this crime is exaggerated. The very nature of someone pulling off a kidnapping and forced sex for profit appears to be very difficult. Since it would be difficult this makes this crime rare. Not impossible, but extremely rare.

A key point is that on the sidelines the prostitutes themselves are not being listened to. They oppose laws against prostitution.   But no one wants to listen to the prostitutes themselves.  Only to the self appointed experts that make up numbers and stories many of which have never met a real forced sex slave or if they did it was only a few. The media and government never ask the prostitutes themselves what would help them in terms of laws.

Many women in the sex business are independent workers.  They don’t have a pimp.

They work for themselves, advertise themselves, and keep all the money for themselves.   No one forces them, because there isn’t anyone to force them. They go out and find their own customers, set their own prices, and arrange everything by themselves.  Sometimes they may employ others to help them, but these are not pimps.  If for example, she hires an internet web design company to make a website for her, does that make the web design company a pimp? If she pays a phone company for a phone to do business, does this make the phone company a pimp? If she puts an ad in the paper, does this make the editor a pimp?  If she puts the money she makes into a bank account does this make the bank a pimp?

A lot of anti prostitution groups would say yes. Everyone and everybody is a pimp.

These groups make up lies, and false statistics that no one bothers to check.  A big reason they do this is because it provides high paying jobs for them.  They get big donations, and grants from the government, charity, churches, etc.  to have these groups, and pay these high salaries of the anti prostitution workers.

Sex Traffficking in Sports Events:

Super Bowl 2011:

According to the media hype There was supposed to be hundreds of thousands of under age child sex slaves kidnapped and forced to have sex with super bowl fans. At the Dallas Super Bowl 2011. WHAT HAPPENED TO ALL OF THEM????????????

Well, as I predicted it was all a big lie told by various anti-prostitution groups and the Dallas Women’s Foundation which is a anti-prostitution group that lies in order to get grant money from the government and charities to pay their high salaries. As proved in the link below:
Top FBI agent in Dallas (Robert Casey Jr.) sees no evidence of expected spike in child sex trafficking:

“Among those preparations was an initiative to prevent an expected rise in sex trafficking and child prostitution surrounding the Super Bowl. But Robert Casey Jr., special agent in charge of the FBI’s Dallas office, said he saw no evidence that the increase would happen, nor that it did.

“In my opinion, the Super Bowl does not create a spike in those crimes,” he said. “The discussion gets very vague and general. People mixed up child prostitution with the term human trafficking, which are different things, and then there is just plain old prostitution.”


This myth of thousands or millions of underage sex slaves tries to make every sports fan a sex criminal. No matter what the sport is, or in what country it is in.

Brian McCarthy isn’t happy. He’s a spokesman for the NFL. Every year he’s forced to hear why his customers are adulterers and child molesters. Brian McCarthy says the sport/super bowl sex slave story is a urban legend, with no truth at all.

I do not like the idea of people getting the wrong information and believing lies, no matter what the topic is. The Sex trafficking, slavery issue is one of the biggest lies being told today. It is amazing to me how people will believe such lies so easily. The media is to blame for this. I wonder why they feel such a need to report wrong stats, numbers and information about this topic without doing proper research.

While this may happen in very rare limited situations, the media will say that millions of people are sex slaves without doing any real research on the topic. Only taking the word of special interest anti-prostitution groups which need to generate money in the form of huge government grants from taxpayers, and charities. These “non profit” group’s employees make huge salaries, therefore they need to lobby the government, and inflate and invent victims in order to get more money into their organizations. If you look into how many real kidnapped forced against their will sex slaves there are, and not just take the anti-prostitution groups word for it. You will be very surprised.
Where are all the forced sex slaves? I would like to meet the millions of slaves and see for myself if they were kidnapped and forced against their will.

These groups lobby the government in a big way, getting Politicians to truly believe their lies. This is an attempt to over inflate an issue in order to get more government money to these organizations. As a tax payer, voter, and resident I don’t want the government to mislead me.

I would like to see a news organization do a full report on the lies, myths and exaggerated numbers being told about sex trafficking slaves.  The articles about the super bowl sex slaves, has been proved wrong many times, but news organizations still report about it, as if it were fact.

== World Cup 2006 ==

Politicians, religious and aid groups,   still repeat the media story that 40,000 prostitutes were trafficked into Germany for the 2006 world cup – long after leaked police documents revealed there was no truth at all in the tale. A baseless claim of 25,000 trafficking victims is still being quoted, recently, for example, by the Salvation Army in written evidence to the home affairs select committee, in which they added: “Other studies done by media have suggested much higher numbers.”  Which has been proven by the German police to be completely false.  Yet people still talk about these false numbers as if it were fact.

==World Cup 2010 ==
Again using the made up number of 40,000 prostitutes trafficked:

The behavior of fans in South Africa has run contrary to what was predicted prior to the start of the tournament after David Bayever told World Cup organizers in March it was feared that up to 40,000 extra prostitutes could converge in the host nation to meet the expected demand. Bayever, deputy chairperson of South Africa’s Central Drug Authority (CDA) that advises on drug abuse but also works with prostitutes, warned: “Forty-thousand new prostitutes. As if we do not have enough people of our own, we have to import them to ensure our visitors are entertained.”

But the tournament in 2010, if anything, has seen the modern-day soccer fan attracted to art galleries and museums over brothels.

A trend that has seen a drop in revenue across the board for the prostitution industry, which is illegal in South Africa. “Zobwa,” the chairperson of Sisonke — an action group representing around 70 street prostitutes in Johannesburg — said business had been down over the last month. “The World Cup has been devastating. We thought it was going to be a cash cow but it’s chased a lot of the business away. It’s been the worst month in my company’s history,” the owner and founder of one of Johannesburg’s most exclusive escort companies told CNN.

In recent years, every time there has been a major international sporting event, a group of government officials, campaigning feminists, pliant journalists and NGOs have claimed that the movement of thousands of men to strange foreign countries where there will be lots of alcohol and horniness will result in the enslavement of women for the purposes of sexual pleasure. Obviously. And every time they have simply doubled the made-up scare figures from the last international sporting event, to make it look like this problem of sport/sex/slavery gets worse year on year.  Yet each year it is proved false.

This myth tries to make every sports fan a sex criminal. No matter what the sport is, or in what country it is in. These anti-prostitution groups need to in invent a victim that does not exist in order to get press attention.

Below are the few brave souls in the media who told the truth about super bowl sex trafficking:

Sex Trafficking in Sports Events links:

Dallas TV News show about super bowl sex slave myth:


Dallas newspaper:




Official Lies About Sex-Trafficking Exposed: It’s now clear Anti Prostitution groups used fake data to deceive the media and lie to Congress. And it was all done to score free publicity and a wealth of public funding


== In the USA ==

On August 5, 2008

U.S. Justice Department Inspector General Glenn Fine uncovered discrepancies in a program dedicated to cracking down on human trafficking, McClatchy Newspapers report. Former Attorney General Alberto Gonzales spent millions of dollars on combating the international trafficking of indentured servants and sex slaves, including by creating task forces across the U.S. that identified and helped victims. Over four years, the department paid $50 million to the task forces and other groups. Conservative groups, who pressured the administration to go after sex trafficking more aggressively, applauded his efforts.

Critics have questioned whether the problem was being hyped. Fine found in an audit issued that the task forces and other groups set up to help were ‘significantly’ overstating the number of victims they served. By examining a sampling of cases, Fine found the task forces had exaggerated by as much as 165 percent. Making matters worse, the inflated numbers were included in annual reports to Congress.

The Sex Trafficking/Slavery idea is used to outlaw all prostitution around the world by saying that all women are victims even if they do it willing.

This hurts any real victims because it labels all sex workers as victims. Everything I heard about this problem was Americans complaining about it, but I never heard from the so-called victims themselves complaining about it. Why is that?  Many of the self appointed experts complaining about this have never even met or seen a real forced against their will victim.

The problems I see with the sex traffic idea is that suppose some of the women were not forced into this type of prostitution, but were willing and wanted to do this type of work, and went out of their way to do this type of work. (It is a lot of fast easy money, they don’t need a degree, or a green card.)

All they have to do is lie and say that someone forced them into it. When perhaps, no one did.
If a illegal allien for example is the victim all they have to do is lie and here are their benefits based on the USA anti-traffic prostitution laws:

1. They don’t have to go to jail or be arrested.
2. They get to stay and live in America, and become U.S. citizens
3. The U.S. Government will provide them with housing, food, education and will cater to them since they will be considered victims. .  They will be considered victimed refugees, and can become American citizens.

The way I see it is that this USA government system will encourage people to lie in order to receive all the benefits listed above.

While there are some women who may be true victims.  This is a small rare group of people.

What hard evidence does the police have that these women were forced slaves?  Were all the women that the police saw in fact slaves? Did the police prove without a doubt due to hard concrete evidence that the women were victims of being slaves and forced against their will?  Did they account for all the benefits they would receive if they lied?

I find it very hard to believe that most women in this business are forced against their will to do it. It would just be too difficult. There may be some exceptions but, I believe this is an attempt to over inflate an issue in order to get more government money to these organizations.  As a tax payer, voter, and resident I don’t want the government to mislead me.

== In the United Kingdom ==

In October, 2009 – The biggest ever investigation of sex trafficking failed to find a single person who had forced anybody into prostitution in spite of hundreds of raids on sex workers in a six-month campaign by government departments, specialist agencies and every police force in the country. The failure has been disclosed by a Guardian investigation which also suggests that the scale of and nature of sex trafficking into the UK has been exaggerated by politicians and media.

Nick Davis of the Guardian newspaper writes:

Current and former ministers have claimed that thousands of women have been imported into the UK and forced to work as sex slaves, but most of these statements were either based on distortions of quoted sources or fabrications without any source at all.

===In India and Nepal===

If media reports are to be believed, there would be no young girls left in Nepal. Oft-quoted figures such as 5,000-7,000 Nepali girls being trafficked across the border to India every year and 150,000-200,000 Nepali women and girls being trapped in brothels in various Indian cities, were first disseminated in 1986, and have remained unaltered over the next two decades. The report that first quoted these statistics was from the Indian Health Association, Mumbai, written by AIDS Society of India secretary general, Dr. I S Gilada, and presented in a workshop in 1986. Subsequently, a version of this report was published as an article in The Times of India on January 2, 1989. To date, the source of this figure remains a mystery. Unfortunately, such a lack of clarity is more the norm than the exception when it comes to reporting on trafficking in women and girls.

There needs to be a distinct separation of

1. Child sex trafficking

2. Adult sex Trafficking

3. Adult consensual


4. Sex Slavery

They are not the same.  Adult Women are NOT children.

Media coverage of trafficking and adult women’s migration and sex work is confused and inaccurate. The media wrongly uses the terms ‘sex work’ and ‘trafficking’ and adult sex work and child sex trafficking synonymously, perpetuating stereotypes and stigmatization, and contributing to the violation of women’s right to free movement and livelihood options.  They assume that if any woman moves from place to place for sex work that they are being trafficking. The media, politicians, aid groups, feminist,  and religious organizations does not take into account that she may do this of her own free will.  Too often  women are treated like children. Adult women are not children. Prostitution is a business between adults and in our society adults are responsible for themselves. Sex slavery/trafficking on the other hand is non-consensual.  To equate that the two are the same is to say grown adult women are not capable of being responsible or thinking for themselves.

Most migrant women, including those in the sex industry, have made a clear decision, says a new study, to leave home and take their chances abroad. They are not “passive victims” in need of “saving” or sending back by western campaigners.

Sex Trafficking/Slavery is used by many groups as a attempt to outlaw all prostitution around the world by saying that all women are victims even if they do it willing. This hurts any real victims because it labels all sex workers as victims.

This is done by the media, aid groups, NGO’s, feminists, politicians, and religious organizations that receive funds from the government. There are very strong groups who promote that all adult women who have sex are victims even if they are willing, enjoy it and go out of there way to get it. These groups try to get the public to believe that no adult women in their right mind would ever go into the sex business unless she was forced to do so, weather she knew it or not. They say that 100% of all sex workers are trafficking victims. They do this in order to label all men as sex offenders and wipe out all consensual prostitution. Which is what their real goal is. There is almost no one who challenges or questions them about their false beliefs. Therefore, the only voices you hear are of these extreme groups. These groups want to label all men as terrible sex offenders for seeing a willing adult sex worker. No one stands up to say this is foolish, the passive public says nothing. These groups even say that all men who marry foreign women are terrible sex predators who take advange of these “helpless foreign women wives”.

These groups believe that two adults having consensual sex in private should be outlawed. Since they believe that it is impossible for a man to have sex with a woman without abusing the woman in the process.

This is an example of feminists and other groups exploiting the suffering of a small minority of vulnerable and abused women in order to further their own collective interests. For example, getting money from the government and Charity into their organizations. Rather than wanting to find the truth.

Non government Organizations (NGO’s) are chiefly responsible for manufacturing “a growing problem” of trafficking in order to generate revenue for their Federally funded cottage industry. They also fabricated numbers by expanding the definition of trafficking to include practically anyone.

For example various women’s groups testified under oath at the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (July 13, 2007) that US based matchmaking organizations were correlated to human trafficking ring.

This hysterical claim was an emotional ploy to get legislators to enact the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act. The truth reveals THERE HAS NEVER BEEN A US BASED MATCHMAKING AGENCY ARRESTED FOR TRAFFICKING. These NGO’s spread their propaganda partnering with Lifetime television(Television for women) conducting a poll among viewers (mostly women) to asociate “mail order brides services” with trafficking of women to generate support for the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act. wqad.com/global/story.asp?s=3970595&ClientType=Print

This romance law requires American men submit criminal hard copy records to be reviewed before they can communicate with a foreign lady using a matchmaking organization.

Why should the US government dole out millions of dollars to NGO’s such as Polaris Project whose executives are paid handsome salaries when the money could be spent on REAL PROBLEMS?

Most of the information above relates to Adult prostitution.

The following information is from a report from the Crimes against children research center which talks about the Unknown Exaggerated Statistics of Juvenile Prostitution.

Crimes against Children Research Center ● University of New Hampshire ● 126 Horton Social Science Center ● Durham, NH 03824 (603) 862‐1888●Fax: (603) 862‐1122●www.unh.edu/ccrc

How Many Juveniles are Involved in Prostitution in the U.S.?

There have been many attempts to estimate the number of juvenile prostitutes within the United States. These estimates range from 1,400 to 2.4 million, although most fall between 300,000 and 600,000. BUT PLEASE DO NOT CITE THESE NUMBERS. READ ON. A close look at these diverse estimates reveals that none are based on a strong scientific foundation. They are mostly educated guesses or extrapolations based on questionable assumptions. They do not have the substance of typically reported crime statistics, like the number of robberies or the number of child sexual abuse victims. The reality is that we do not currently know how many juveniles are involved in prostitution. Scientifically credible estimates do not exist.

The most often cited estimates on juvenile prostitution will be described here and their source, along with the major problems with their validity. Estes and WeinerPerhaps the most commonly used estimate of juvenile prostitution comes from Estes and Weiner (2001). These authors concluded in a large, publicized report that about 326,000 children were “at risk for commercial sexual exploitation.” However, there are several problems with treating this number as an estimate of juvenile prostitution. First, although this is often cited as an estimate of juvenile prostitutes, even the authors call it something muchmore nebulous: youth “at risk” of commercial sexual exploitation. “At risk” means it is compilation of youth in various categories (14 in total) – like runaway kids, female gangmembers – who could become or be involved in commercial sexual exploitation. But the authors had no evidence of how many or what proportion of these youth actually were involved. Secondly, the numbers that form the basis of their various “at risk” categories are themselves highly speculative. One large portion of the estimate is simply a crude guess that 35% of a national estimate of runaway youth out of their home a week or longer were “at risk”. Another large portion was a guess that one quarter of 1% of the general population of youth 10‐17 were “at risk”. Together these two groups constitute nearly 200,000 of the at risk youth. But it is essentially a guesstimate and not a scientific estimate.

A third problem is that no one has any idea how much duplication there is among the 14 at risk groups. Some of the runaways are also gang members and living in public housing, etc. so one cannot simply add together estimates from these various sources. A scientific estimate would have to “unduplicate” the numbers from the various categories. In sum, no one should cite the 326,000 number from Estes and Weiner as a scientifically based estimate of the number of juvenile prostitutes. AddHealth Survey Another estimate with some research credibility is from a recent study by Edwards, Iritani, and Hallfors (2005), which found that 3.5% of an AddHealth sample endorsed an item asking if they had “ever exchanged sex for drugs or money.” The nationally representative sample was comprised of 13,294 youth in grades 8‐12 during the year 1996 who completed an in‐school questionnaire. The majority (67.9%) of those saying they had participated in a sex exchange were males.

A first caveat about this estimate is that it is not clear that what the respondents were endorsing really constituted prostitution. For example, could a juvenile who had paid a prostitute for sex consider that to have been an “exchange of sex for money” and thus said yes to the question? Could a sexual encounter that involved sharing drugs with a partner as part of consensual sex have prompted someone to say yes to the question, even though the drugs were not necessarily a sine qua non of the sexual encounter? The similarity between prostitution and exchanging sex for goods needs to be clarified if this estimate is to be accepted as an estimate of juvenile prostitution. In addition, the fact that the majority of those endorsing the question were boys raises an important validity question about this estimate. Virtually no analyst of the problem thinks that there are truly so many more boys than girls engaged in juvenile prostitution; because the survey found more boys engaging in prostitution, there may be some misunderstanding of the

question at work. It may be possible to obtain an incidence estimate for juvenile prostitution through a general population survey, but the questions and details will have to be more specific to confirm that what is being counted is truly prostitution or sexual exploitation. General Accounting Office Report In 1982, the General Accounting Office attempted to determine the basis of existing juvenile prostitution estimates. The General Accounting Office (1982) found that the “general perception” estimates ranged from “tens of thousands to 2.4 million.” One set of estimates from 1982 seemed to trace back to the “gut hunches” of Robin Lloyd, the author of the 1976 book, “For Love or Money: Boy Prostitution in America,” who used a working figure of 300,000 male juvenile prostitutes. The President of the Odyssey Institute adopted this figure, then doubled it to cover female juvenile prostitutes, increasing the estimate to 600,000. Because the Odyssey Institute president believed that only half of juvenile prostitutes were known, the 600,000 figure was doubled; the estimate was doubled once more to 2.4 million because the president believed that the estimate did not include 16 and 17 year old prostitutes. These were

all just hunches without scientific basis. The General Accounting Office (1982) report also located an estimate by the Criminal Justice Institute Inc., which stated that 20 to 25 percent of all prostitutes were juveniles. The Criminal Justice Institute, Inc. estimated that there were 450,000 prostitutes of all ages, leading to an estimate of 90,000 to 112,500 juvenile prostitutes in the U.S. However, these Criminal Justice Institute Inc. estimates are not linked to any citation for methodological verification or explanation. Finally, a New York City shelter president estimated that there were “tens of thousands” of juvenile prostitutes across the nation. These “gut hunch” statistics assembled by the General Accounting Office may have been the basis for some rough consensus about the magnitude of juvenile prostitution among advocates. But there were no hard statistics. Moreover, whatever the rates were in the 1970s and 1980s, they almost certainly no longer apply. That was an era when the juvenile runaway problem was considerably larger than at present. There is indication that since the 1970s and ‘80s, running away has declined (Finkelhor & Jones, 2006) and, in the era of AIDS, casual sexual behavior among the young has also become less frequent (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 2005). So it is likely that estimates from 20 or 30 years ago have little applicability to the U.S. at

the present time. Despite the fact that the General Accounting Office estimates are obsolete, current groups concerned with child welfare still use this estimate. For example, Children of the Night (http://www.childrenofthenight.org/faq.html) cites the 1982 General Accounting Office estimate of 600,000 juvenile prostitutes under the age of 16. This organization also cites UNICEF estimates of 300,000 juvenile prostitutes (In a 2004 textbook entitled “Child Labour: A Textbook for University Students”, the International Labour Organization cites the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as estimating 300,000 juvenile prostitutes. When asked to verify this, U.S. DHHS could not locate this estimate.). When asked about the estimates on the Children of the Night website, founder and President Lois Lee responded: “I am always pressured for statistics and I have said, there is no way to know for sure because there is no counting mechanism, no quantitative analysis on the subject. Several years ago, I suggested to a lot of [government] agencies and NGO’s that about 1/3rd of all runaways have some kind of “brush” with a pimp or prostitution. All the professionals agreed that was a good estimate. UNICEF published it as their own.” L. Lee (personal communication, September 29, 2007).

A considerable number of the estimates of juvenile prostitution do start with more scientifically based survey statistics on running away (for example, Hammer, Finkelhor & Sedlak, 2002), which suggest that hundreds of thousands of youth runaway every year. It might seem plausible that a significant percentage of runaway street youths engage in survival sex or get recruited into prostitution. But it is important to remember that most of the youth identified as runaways in survey samples are not truly on the streets (Hammer et al., 2002). Most runaways run to the homes of friends and family. Thus, it is not accurate to simply think about the experience of street runaways and generalize from that experience to the experience of all runaways.

Other Estimates Other organizations do not cite sources that have reliable methodologies. The Coalition against Trafficking in Women (http://www.catwinternational.org/factbook/usa2_prost.php) estimates that there are between 300,000 and 600,000 juvenile prostitutes in the U.S., citing a Beacon

Journal news article from 1997. The article, entitled “Danger for Prostitutes Increasing, Most Starting Younger,” cited Gary Costello of the Exploited Child Unit of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, but did not include a discussion of the way that the estimate was calculated. The 1995 Progress of Nations report by UNICEF (http://www.unicef.org/pon95/progtoc.html) offers a “guesstimate” of 300,000 juvenile prostitutes in the U.S. under the age of 18. The UNICEF report cited a U.S. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children estimate used inUNICEF’s “Breaking the Walls of Silence: A UNICEF Background Paper on the Sexual Exploitation of Children” report from 1994. Again, there was no discussion as to how this number was derived in the Progress of Nations report. Similarly, the Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS) of the U.S. Department of Justice (http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/ceos/prostitution.html) reports that 293,000 juveniles are at risk for commercial sexual exploitation. This estimate was made based on the Estes and Weiner (2001) article discussed previously.

Some figures about the related problem of “sex trafficking of children” are also available, but once again with a speculative methodology, a “computer simulation.” Clawson, Layne, and Small (2006) estimated in a very statistically complicated report that over 800,000 females, including over 100,000 under age 19, were “at risk” of being trafficked to the US from eight nations: Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Mexico. These include trafficking for all purposes including for employment. Of those at risk, the authors estimate that roughly 15,000 females under nineteen were being trafficked for sex from those nations. However, the authors concede that these estimates are not informed by any real statistics or research about the true rates of adult or child sex trafficking, but rather that the estimates are “probabilit[ies] based on a mathematical equation, not a reality” (M. Layne 2/4/2008). Police Data

There are also national estimates from law enforcement sources about the number of juveniles taken into custody because of prostitution and related crimes. For example, the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report data analyzed by Snyder and Sickmund (2006) shows that 1,400 juveniles were arrested nationally in 2003 for prostitution and commercialized vice. These data come from aggregating data from most of the local law enforcement agencies in the U.S., and are the same data used to estimate year‐to‐year estimates in violent and property crime. This is a plausible estimate of the number of youth arrested for prostitution and commercialized vice because, in truth, not many law enforcement agencies are actively arresting youth in regard to this problem, as a soon to be released CCRC study will show. But there is undoubtedly more prostitution involving youth; law enforcement officials believe many youths involved in prostitution are arrested for other crimes (e.g., drug possession, curfew violation, etc.) but not prostitution per se. Most observers believe also that there are also many youth engaged in prostitution who are never arrested by police. So, while this UCR estimate is plausible, no one believes this estimate fully characterizes the problem. It is rarely cited, even as part of a spectrum of estimates, perhaps because it would so lower the range as to make the higher estimates seem more extreme.

Conclusion As the critique of estimates suggest, there is currently no reliable estimate of juvenile prostitution. Some current estimates are based upon “gut hunches” and “guesstimates” from almost thirty years ago. Others offer definitions of sexual exchange that may not actually constitute prostitution. Also, the methods used to create these estimates are often difficult to find, making them methodologically suspect. These organizations often recognize these problems but continue to cite such poorly calculated estimates. People concerned about the problem very much want there to be a number that they can cite. Because other people have cited numbers, there has come to be a “collective intuition” about the rough magnitude based on these earlier claims. But in reality there is little scientific substance behind any of them. This is not an uncommon phenomenon in social problem analysis and has been called the “Woozle Effect” (Gelles 1980). The “Woozle Effect” occurs when one writer reports an estimate based on a typically weak methodology or guesstimate that is subsequently cited by other writers, but without the first writer’s caveats (Gelles 1980). Estimates of juvenile prostitution seem to have taken this path: the “gut hunches” of one author and the compiling of such hunches by the General Accounting Office have seemed to provide a basis for contemporary estimates of juvenile prostitution, despite the fact that the General Accounting Office states that the estimates in the literature are “general perceptions” (General Accounting Office, 1982).

What are journalists and scholars to do?

It is our suggestion that in the absence of any estimates with any good scientific basis, that scholars, writers and advocates stop using the unsubstantiated estimates and simply indicate that the true incidence is currently unknown. It is very frustrating to write about a topic and not have an estimate of its magnitude, but we believe that continued citation of unsupported estimates gives them credibility. Even writing that “No one knows how many juveniles are engaged in prostitution, but estimates have been made from 1,400 to 2.4 million,” contributes to the problem. It gives people the impression that these are knowledgeable estimates about the current situation and that the real number lies somewhere in the middle of that range, which it may not. For brief treatments of the problem, one can say simply: “Unfortunately, there are no credible or supported estimates about the size of the problem.” For more extended treatments of the problem, one can cite some of the statistics, but then indicate that these numbers are based mostly on guesses or extremely imprecise and speculative methodologies. It would be a good idea when citing any numbers to be sure to include the low end estimate from law enforcement of 1,400, since this is among the most recent and clearly defined of the estimates, and counters the assumption that all the estimates are large.    Crimes against Children Research Center ● University of New Hampshire ● 126 Horton Social Science Center ● Durham, NH 03824(603) 862‐1888●Fax: (603) 862‐1122●www.unh.edu/ccrcFact sheet written by Michelle Stransky and David Finkelhor. (2008)

From the Department of Justice Stats pages:

Human Trafficking/Trafficking in PersonsAccording to The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) and its 2003, 2005, and 2008, human trafficking has occurred if a person was induced to perform labor or a commercial sex act through force, fraud, or coercion. Any person under age 18 who performs a commercial sex act is considered a victim of human trafficking, regardless of whether force, fraud, or coercion were present.

The Department of Justice (DOJ) funded the creation of the Human Trafficking Reporting System (HTRS). This system provides data on human trafficking incidents investigated between January 1, 2007, and September 30, 2008.

An incident is defined as any investigation into a claim of human trafficking or any investigation of other crimes in which elements of potential human trafficking were identified.

Summary Findings

Between January 1, 2007, and September 30, 2008 task forces reported investigating 1,229 alleged incidents of human trafficking.About 78% of these incidents were still under investigation at the end of the reporting period. Investigations were completed and closed during the 21-month reporting period for the remaining 22%. Less than 10% of alleged human trafficking incidents reported by task forces were confirmed as human trafficking, 10% were pending confirmation, and 23% had been determined not to involve any human trafficking elements. Sex trafficking accounted for 83% of the alleged incidents,12% involved allegations of either labor trafficking, and 5% were other/unknown forms of human trafficking.

Of the 1,018 alleged sex trafficking incidents reported by task forces –391 (38%) involved allegations of child sex trafficking and 627 (62%) incidents involved allegations of adult sex trafficking, such as forced prostitution or other sex trafficking crimes. Forced prostitution (46%) and child sex trafficking (30%) represented the largest categories of confirmed human trafficking incidents. Allegations of forced or coerced adult prostitution accounted for 63% of human trafficking investigations that were ultimately found not to involve human trafficking elements.

Below is a article from the Washington Post:

Human Trafficking Evokes Outrage, Little Evidence.

U.S. Estimates Thousands of Victims, But Efforts to Find Them Fall Short

By Jerry Markon
Washington Post Staff Writer
Sunday, September 23, 2007

Outrage was mounting at the 1999 hearing in the Rayburn House Office Building, where congressmen were learning about human trafficking.

A woman from Nepal testified that September that she had been drugged, abducted and forced to work at a brothel in Bombay. A Christian activist recounted tales of women overseas being beaten with electrical cords and raped. A State Department official said Congress must act — 50,000 slaves were pouring into the United States every year, she said. Furious about the “tidal wave” of victims, Rep. Christopher H. Smith (R-N.J.) vowed to crack down on so-called modern-day slavery.

The next year, Congress passed a law, triggering a little-noticed worldwide war on human trafficking that began at the end of the Clinton administration and is now a top Bush administration priority. As part of the fight, President Bush has blanketed the nation with 42 Justice Department task forces and spent more than $150 million — all to find and help the estimated hundreds of thousands of victims of forced prostitution or labor in the United States.

But the government couldn’t find them. Not in this country.

The evidence and testimony presented to Congress pointed to a problem overseas. But in the seven years since the law was passed, human trafficking has not become a major domestic issue, according to the government’s figures.

The administration has identified 1,362 victims of human trafficking brought into the United States since 2000, nowhere near the 50,000 a year the government had estimated. In addition, 148 federal cases have been brought nationwide, some by the Justice task forces, which are composed of prosecutors, agents from the FBI and Immigration and Customs Enforcement, and local law enforcement officials in areas thought to be hubs of trafficking.

In the Washington region, there have been about 15 federal cases this decade.

Ronald Weitzer, a criminologist at George Washington University and an expert on sex trafficking, said that trafficking is a hidden crime whose victims often fear coming forward. He said that might account for some of the disparity in the numbers, but only a small amount.

“The discrepancy between the alleged number of victims per year and the number of cases they’ve been able to make is so huge that it’s got to raise major questions,” Weitzer said. “It suggests that this problem is being blown way out of proportion.”

Government officials define trafficking as holding someone in a workplace through force, fraud or coercion. Trafficking generally takes two forms: sex or labor. The victims in most prosecutions in the Washington area have been people forced into prostitution. The Department of Health and Human Services “certifies” trafficking victims in the United States after verifying that they were subjected to forced sex or labor. Only non-U.S. citizens brought into this country by traffickers are eligible to be certified, entitling them to receive U.S. government benefits.

Administration officials acknowledge that they have found fewer victims than anticipated. Brent Orrell, an HHS deputy assistant secretary, said that certifications are increasing and that the agency is working hard to “help identify many more victims.” He also said: “We still have a long way to go.”

But Tony Fratto, deputy White House press secretary, said that the issue is “not about the numbers. It’s really about the crime and how horrific it is.” Fratto also said the domestic response to trafficking “cannot be ripped out of the context” of the U.S. government’s effort to fight it abroad. “We have an obligation to set an example for the rest of the world, so if we have this global initiative to stop human trafficking and slavery, how can we tolerate even a minimal number within our own borders?”

He said that the president’s passion about fighting trafficking is motivated in part by his Christian faith and his outrage at the crime. “It’s a practice that he obviously finds disgusting, as most rational people would, and he wants America to be the leader in ending it,” Fratto said. “He sees it as a moral obligation.”

Although there have been several estimates over the years, the number that helped fuel the congressional response — 50,000 victims a year — was an unscientific estimate by a CIA analyst who relied mainly on clippings from foreign newspapers, according to government sources who requested anonymity because they were not authorized to discuss the agency’s methods. Former attorney general Alberto R. Gonzales told Congress last year that a much lower estimate in 2004 — 14,500 to 17,500 a year — might also have been overstated.

Yet the government spent $28.5 million in 2006 to fight human trafficking in the United States, a 13 percent increase over the previous year. The effort has attracted strong bipartisan support.

Steven Wagner, who helped HHS distribute millions of dollars in grants to community groups to find and assist victims, said “Those funds were wasted.”

“Many of the organizations that received grants didn’t really have to do anything,” said Wagner, former head of HHS’s anti-trafficking program. “They were available to help victims. There weren’t any victims.”

Still, the raw emotion of the issue internationally and domestically has spawned dozens of activist organizations that fight trafficking. They include the Polaris Project, which was founded in 2002 by two college students, and the Washington-based Break the Chain Campaign, which started in the mid-1990s focusing on exploited migrant workers before concentrating on trafficking after 2000.

Activist groups and administration officials strongly defend their efforts, saying that trafficking is a terrible crime and that even one case is too many. They said that cultural obstacles and other impediments prevent victims from coming forward.

Mark P. Lagon, director of the State Department’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, said that such problems make the numbers “naturally murky. . . . There are vigorous U.S. government efforts to find and help victims in the United States, not because there is some magic number that we have a gut instinct is out there. Any estimate we’re citing, we’ve always said, is an estimate.”

But Lagon said he is convinced that “thousands upon thousands of people are subject to gross exploitation” in the United States.

Few question that trafficking is a serious problem in many countries, and the U.S. government has spent more than half a billion dollars fighting it around the world since 2000.

Last year, anti-trafficking projects overseas included $3.4 million to help El Salvador fight child labor and $175,000 for community development training for women in remote Mekong Delta villages in Vietnam, according to the State Department. Human trafficking, in the United States and abroad, is under attack by 10 federal agencies that report to a Cabinet-level task force chaired by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.

In the United States, activists say that trafficking has received far more attention than crimes such as domestic violence, of which there are hundreds of thousands of documented victims every year.

The quest to find and help victims of trafficking has become so urgent that the Bush administration hired a public relations firm, a highly unusual approach to fighting crime. Ketchum, a New York-based public relations firm, has received $9.5 million and has been awarded $2.5 million more.

“We’re giving money to Ketchum so they can train people who can train people who can train people to serve victims,” said one Washington area provider of services for trafficking victims, who receives government funding and spoke on condition of anonymity. “Trafficking victims are hidden. They’re not really going to be affected by a big, splashy PR campaign. They’re not watching Lifetime television.”

Yet the anti-trafficking crusade goes on, partly because of the issue’s uniquely nonpartisan appeal. In the past four years, more than half of all states have passed anti-trafficking laws, although local prosecutions have been rare.

“There’s huge political momentum, because this is a no-brainer issue,” said Derek Ellerman, co-founder of the Polaris Project. “No one is going to stand up and oppose fighting modern-day slavery.”

A Matter of Faith
Throughout the 1990s, evangelicals and other Christians grew increasingly concerned about international human rights, fueled by religious persecution in Sudan and other countries. They were also rediscovering a tradition of social reform dating to when Christians fought the slave trade of an earlier era.

Human trafficking has always been a problem in some cultures but increased in the early 1990s, experts say.

For conservative Christians, trafficking was “a clear-cut, uncontroversial, terrible thing going on in the world,” said Gary Haugen, president of International Justice Mission in Arlington, a Christian human rights group.

Feminist groups and other organizations also seized on trafficking, and a 1999 meeting at the Capitol, organized by former Nixon White House aide Charles W. Colson, helped seal a coalition. The session in the office of then-House Majority Leader Richard K. Armey (R-Tex.) brought together the Southern Baptist Convention, conservative William Bennett and Rabbi David Saperstein, a prominent Reform Jewish activist.

The session focused only on trafficking victims overseas, said Mariam Bell, national public policy director for Colson’s Prison Fellowship Ministries.

“It was just ghastly stuff,” Armey recalled last week, saying that he immediately agreed to support an anti-trafficking law. “I felt a sense of urgency that this must be done, and as soon as possible.”

A New Law
A law was more likely to be enacted if its advocates could quantify the issue. During a PowerPoint presentation in April 1999, the CIA provided an estimate: 45,000 to 50,000 women and children were trafficked into the United States every year.

The CIA briefing emerged from the Clinton administration’s growing interest in the problem. First lady Hillary Rodham Clinton had been pushing the issue, former administration officials said.

But information was scarce, so a CIA analyst was told to assess the problem in the United States and abroad. She combed through intelligence reports and law enforcement data. Her main source, however, was news clippings about trafficking cases overseas — from which she tried to extrapolate the number of U.S. victims.

The CIA estimate soon appeared in a report by a State Department analyst that was the U.S. government’s first comprehensive assessment of trafficking. State Department officials raised the alarm about victims trafficked into the United States when they appeared before Congress in 1999 and 2000, citing the CIA estimate. A Justice Department official testified that the number might have been 100,000 each year.

The congressional hearings focused mostly on trafficking overseas. At the House hearing in September 1999, Rep. Earl F. Hilliard (D-Ala.) changed the subject and zeroed in on Laura J. Lederer, a Harvard University expert on trafficking.

“How prevalent is the sex trade here in this country?” Hilliard asked.

“We have so very little information on this subject in this country. . . . so very few facts,” Lederer said.

“Excuse me, but is the sex trade prevalent here?” Hilliard asked.

Nobody knows, Lederer said.

Bipartisan passion melted any uncertainty, and in October 2000, Congress enacted the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, significantly broadening the federal definition of trafficking. Prosecutors would no longer have to rely on statutes that required them to prove a victim had been subjected to physical violence or restraints, such as chains. Now, a federal case could be made if a trafficker had psychologically abused a victim.

The measure toughened penalties against traffickers, provided extensive services for victims and committed the United States to a leading role internationally, requiring the State Department to rank countries and impose sanctions if their anti-trafficking efforts fell short.

The law’s fifth sentence says: “Congress finds that . . . approximately 50,000 women and children are trafficked into the United States each year.”

Raising Awareness
Just as the law took effect, along came a new president to enforce it.

Bell, with Prison Fellowship Ministries, noted that when Bush addressed the U.N. General Assembly in 2003, he focused on the war in Iraq, the war on terrorism and the war on trafficking.

Soon after Bush took office, a network of anti-trafficking nonprofit agencies arose, spurred in part by an infusion of federal dollars.

HHS officials were determined to raise public awareness and encourage victims to come forward. For help, they turned to Ketchum in 2003.

Legal experts said they hadn’t heard of hiring a public relations firm to fight a crime problem. Wagner, who took over HHS’s anti-trafficking program in 2003, said that the strategy was “extremely unusual” but that creative measures were needed.

“The victims of this crime won’t come forward. Law enforcement doesn’t handle that very well, when they have to go out and find a crime,” he said.

Ketchum, whose Washington lobbying arm is chaired by former U.S. Rep. Susan Molinari (R-N.Y.), formed coalitions of community groups in two states and 19 cities, to search for and aid victims. The coalition effort was overseen by a subcontractor, Washington-based Capital City Partners, whose executives during the period of oversight have included the former heads of the Fund for a Conservative Majority and the Manhattan Institute, a conservative think tank, in addition to the former editorial page editor of the conservative Manchester (N.H.) Union Leader newspaper.

Trying to Get the Number Right
Three years ago, the government downsized its estimate of trafficking victims, but even those numbers have not been borne out.

The effort to acquire a more precise number had begun at the Library of Congress and Mercyhurst College in Pennsylvania, where graduate students on a CIA contract stayed up nights, using the Internet to find clippings from foreign newspapers.

Once again, the agency was using mainly news clips from foreign media to estimate the numbers of trafficking victims, along with reports from government agencies and anti-trafficking groups. The students at Mercyhurst, a school known for its intelligence studies program, were enlisted to help.

But their work was thought to be inconsistent, said officials at the Government Accountability Office, which criticized the government’s trafficking numbers in a report last year.

A part-time researcher at the Library of Congress took over the project. “The numbers were totally unreliable,” said David Osborne, head of research for the library’s federal research division. “If it was reported that 15 women were trafficked from Romania into France, French media might pick it up and say 32 women and someone else would say 45.”

A CIA analyst ran the research through a computer simulation program, said government officials who spoke on condition of anonymity because they were discussing the CIA’s methods. It spat out estimates of destination countries for trafficking victims worldwide. The new number of victims trafficked into the United States: 14,500 to 17,500 each year.

The simulation is considered a valid way to measure probability if the underlying data are reliable. “It seems incredibly unlikely that this was a robust, sound analysis,” said David Banks, a statistics professor at Duke University.

The CIA’s new estimate, which first appeared in a 2004 State Department report, has been widely quoted, including by a senior Justice Department official at a media briefing this year. It’s also posted on the HHS Web site.

The Justice Department’s human trafficking task force in Washington has mounted an aggressive effort to find victims.

But at a meeting of the task force this year, then-coordinator Sharon Marcus-Kurn said that detectives had spent “umpteen hours of overtime” repeatedly interviewing women found in Korean- and Hispanic-owned brothels. “It’s very difficult to find any underlying trafficking that is there,” Marcus-Kurn told the group.

People trafficked into the United States have traditionally been the focus of the crackdown. In recent years, there has been increasing debate about whether the victim estimates should include U.S. citizens. For example, adult U.S. citizens forced into prostitution are also trafficking victims under federal law, but some say that such cases should be left to local police.

D.C.: A Trafficking Hub?
In a classroom at the D.C. police academy in January, President Bush appears on a screen at a mandatory training session in how to investigate and identify trafficking. The 55 officers who attended watch a slide show featuring testimonials from government officials and a clip from Bush’s 2003 speech to the United Nations.

Sally Stoecker, lead researcher for Shared Hope International in Arlington, which aims to increase awareness of sex trafficking, takes the microphone. “It’s a huge crime, and it’s continuing to grow,” Stoecker says, citing the government’s most recent estimate of victims.

The D.C. officers are among thousands of law enforcement officials nationwide who have been trained in how to spot trafficking. In Montgomery County, police have investigated numerous brothels since the force was trained in 2005 and last year. Officers have found a few trafficking victims, but there have been no prosecutions.

The Justice Department runs law enforcement task forces across the country. It’s a top priority for the department’s Civil Rights Division.

Justice officials have said there has been a 600 percent increase in U.S. cases. But the department said in a report last September: “In absolute numbers, it is true that the prosecution figures pale in comparison to the estimated scope of the problem.”

The 148 cases filed this decade by the Civil Rights Division and U.S. attorney’s offices might not include what Justice officials call a limited number of child trafficking prosecutions by the Criminal Division, Justice officials said Friday. They could not provide a number.

Arlington County Commonwealth’s Attorney Richard E. Trodden, who studied trafficking for the Virginia Crime Commission, said he doesn’t know of any local prosecutions in Northern Virginia.

Nearly seven years after it began, the anti-trafficking campaign rolls on.

“This is important for me personally,” Gonzales said in January as he announced the creation of a Justice Department unit to focus on trafficking cases. Encouraged by Gonzales, who sent letters to all 50 governors, states continued to pass anti-trafficking laws.

Maryland enacted a law in May that toughens penalties.

Virginia has not taken legislative action; some legislators have said that a law isn’t needed.

HHS is still paying people to find victims. Last fall, the agency announced $3.4 million in new “street outreach” awards to 22 groups nationwide.

Nearly $125,000 went to Mosaic Family Services, a nonprofit agency in Dallas. For the past year, its employees have put out the word to hospitals, police stations, domestic violence shelters — any organization that might come into contact with a victim.

“They’re doing about a thousand different things,” said Bill Bernstein, Mosaic’s deputy director.

Three victims were found.The Super Bowl Prostitute Myth: 100,000 Hookers Won’t Be Showing Up in DallasBy Pete Kotz: From the Dallas Observer newspaperpublished: January 27, 2011

The alarm bells reached peak decibel in November, when Dallas Police Sergeant Louis Felini told the The Dallas Morning News that between 50,000 and 100,000 prostitutes could descend on the metroplex for the Super Bowl. The call to outrage had sounded.

His estimate was astonishing. At the higher figure, it meant that every man, woman and child holding a ticket would have their own personal hooker, from the vice presidential wing of FedEx to Little Timmy from Green Bay.

And if you believed a study commissioned by the Dallas Women’s Foundation, the hordes would include 38,000 underage prostitutes. Doe-eyed beauties from the Heartland would be peddled like Jell-O shots at the Delta Phi soiree.

Official Dallas would not be caught flat-footed. Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott and the FBI pledged extra manpower to fight “human trafficking.” The Arlington Police Department put up billboards near Cowboys Stadium. They featured flashing photos of busted johns, warning visitors: We don’t take kindly to perverts like you, son.

Even the Shapiro Law Firm leaped in. Noting that an estimated 40,000 hookers showed up in Dallas for the NBA All-Star game last year, it wanted to make sure that, should a hedge fund manager find himself ensnared in naked compromise, “our attorneys provide experienced defense for sex crimes, including the solicitation of a prostitute.”

The city was gearing up for a massive invasion of skanks and sex fiends. It would be like Normandy, only with way more plastic surgery—the largest single gathering of freaks and pedophiles the world has ever seen. At least outside of a Vatican staff meeting.

But if Dallas is like any other Super Bowl—or Olympics or World Cup, for that matter—today’s four-alarm panic will tinkle as softly as a servant’s bell by next week. All evidence says that America’s call girls will be at home, watching the game of TV, just like you and me.

Judging by Super Bowls past, the mass migration of teenage sex slaves is nothing more than myth.

Read between his very terse lines, and you can tell that Brian McCarthy isn’t happy. He’s a spokesman for the NFL. Every year he’s forced to hear from mopes like yours truly, wondering why his customers are adulterers and child molesters.

The routine is the same in every Super Bowl city. The media beats the drum of impending invasion, warning that anywhere from 15,000 to 100,000 hookers will soon arrive. Politicians lather on their special sauce of manufactured outrage. Cops and prosecutors vow stings and beefed up manpower.

By implication, the NFL’s wealthiest and most connected fans—captains of industry and senators from Utah—will be plotting a week of sexual rampage not seen since the Vikings sailed on Scotland. And they must be stopped.

“This is urban legend that is pure pulp fiction,” the NFL’s McCarthy says. “I would refer you to your local law enforcement officials.”

So that’s what we did. Meet police Sergeant Tommy Thompson of Phoenix, which hosted the 2008 Super Bowl. “We may have had certain precincts that were going gangbusters looking for prostitutes, but they were picking up your everyday street prostitutes,” Thompson says of his vice cops. “They didn’t notice any sort of glitch in the number of prostitution arrests leading up to the Super Bowl.”

Conspicuously noted: He doesn’t recall a single arrest of an underage girl.

Perhaps Phoenix was an anomaly. So let’s go to Tampa, host of Super Bowl 2009. Police spokeswoman Andrea Davis says her department ran special operations on the sex trade. They came up empty. “We didn’t see a huge influx in prostitutes coming into Tampa,” she says. “The arrests were not a lot higher. They were almost the same.”

Now it could be that both departments are incompetent, mistaking tens of thousands of women in fishnet stockings for a very large synchronized swimming team. So let’s travel to Europe, where the hooker influx for the World Cup is routinely pegged at 40,000. If anyone’s going to break the record for the world’s largest orgy, it’s the Godless Eurotrash, right?

Germany hosted the 2006 World Cup. U.S congressmen warned the promiscuous Krauts that fleshly opportunism would not be tolerated. So the government spent millions of euros to crush human trafficking. No one could say the Germans were perv enablers.

But apparently 39,995 of the blasphemers had carburetor trouble in Prague and never showed. The final Cup tally for forced prostitution arrests: 5. German brothels couldn’t even report a surge in business. And a further study by the Swedish government ruled “the 40,000 estimate was unfounded and unrealistic.”

There don’t appear to be solid figures for last summer’s South African Cup, but anecdotal evidence says the sex business was slow.

The only concrete numbers we have: Museums showed record attendance.

This isn’t to say that the sex trade isn’t alive and well. It is. Nor is it to imply there are no such thing as teen prostitutes. There are. The problem is that most of what we believe remains fixed in a blaxploitation film from 1973, where menacing pimps named Lester beat their weeping charges with diamond-encrusted canes.

Ask Maggie McNeill.

That’s not her real name. It’s the pen name she uses on her website, The Honest Courtesan, where she dispenses wisdom on all things hooker. She ran an escort service in New Orleans for six years, supplying ladies for the 2002 Super Bowl. As she sees it, almost all we believe about the industry is fallacy.

“Pimps do exist,” she says, “but they’re a relatively rare phenomenon.” The vast majority of hookers are willing, independent contractors.

Underage hookers are also “extremely rare,” McNeill says. Over the years, she fielded a few hundred applications from ladies of the eve. Only one didn’t pass a drivers license check.

Sure, there are exceptions. But McNeill doesn’t think huge numbers of hookers are going anywhere. And they won’t be heading to Dallas for a very simple reason: Sporting events suck for the sex trade.

The younger fans have already spent thousands on jacked-up hotel rates, airfare and scalped tickets, she says. They only have enough left to nurse Bud Lights and Jäger bombs.

The executive caste may have money to burn, but most bring their families along. “What do they say to their wives?” McNeill asks. “‘Hey honey, I’m going to see a hooker now?’”

As for McNeill’s experience during Super Bowl week in New Orleans: “I really saw no change whatsoever.”

So how do these myths get started? Through good intentions, of course.

There’s no way to quantify the number of hookers, since most women won’t admit to their profession. Public confession only brings an audit from the IRS or a visit from child welfare workers.

That leaves the outside world to speculate—usually with stats only appreciated after eight beers near closing time. Professors pitch junk studies whereby every runaway girl is a potential prostitute.

Advocacy groups take those numbers and fan them by the thousands, buffing them with lurid anecdotes of “sex slaves” and “victims of human trafficking.” The fervent simply can’t believe that isolated cases are just that: isolated.

But it’s hard to kindle interest in the world’s oldest profession. So they latch onto the occasional news story or CNN special. After all, children in distress sell.

“Underage girls make better victims, better poster children,” says McNeill, a former librarian with a master’s from LSU. “I’m 44. What kind of believable victim would I make?”

The study by the Dallas Women’s Foundation shows how the numbers are baked. It hired a company to gauge the percentage of juvenile hookers in Dallas. Its scientific method: Look at online escort ads and guess the ages of the women pictured!

Never mind that escort services often yank said photos from the Internet to put their most sultry visual forward. And never mind that such methodology wouldn’t pass muster at Mert’s Discount Community College & Small Engine Repair.

The company still decreed that 38 percent of Dallas hookers were underage!

(Disclosure: The Dallas Observer and Backpage are owned by the same parent company, Village Voice Media Holdings.)

Not ones to miss 30 seconds of free air time, that’s when the politicians climb aboard. After all, what would you rather do? Be fitted for the role of child-rescuing hero at a congressional hearing or a press conference? Or sit down to the complex, painful task of addressing America’s age-old runaway problem?

Of course, we in the media are equally culpable. We dutifully relay the fraud via our Patented Brand of Unquestioning Stenography, rarely bothering to check if it’s remotely plausible. And by this time, there’s no going back. The fraud must be upheld. Charities have raised money to help the innocents. Politicians have brayed and task forces have been appointed. Editors and news directors have ordered five-part series. No one wants to look like a moron.

But the week after every Super Bowl, they all go quiet.

Either the 100,000 hookers never showed, or they were in dastardly possession of super invisible powers.

Maybe it will be different in Dallas, with its all-hands-on-deck vigilance. Perhaps next week’s dockets will be sagging with thousands of runaway middle-school volleyball stars. Perhaps the Shapiro Law Firm will be giving a bulk rate to the entire roster of the Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce.

Perhaps.Super Bowl prostitution: 100,000 hookers didn’t show, but America’s latest political scam did.Pete Kotz:  From the Dallas Observer newspaperpublished: March 03, 2011

Had elected officials done even the slightest research, they would have known it was myth. But this had little to do with protecting women and children. Think of it as a combination religious revival and political scam.

Politicians, women’s groups, cops and child advocates were predicting that up to 100,000 hookers would be shipped into Dallas for the Super Bowl. It would be akin to the invasion of Normandy—with silicone and come-hither poses at no extra charge.

Yet someone forgot to tell America’s prostitutes they had an appointment with destiny. The arrest numbers are now in. The hookers failed to show.

It was folly from the outset, of course. To buy the hype, you had to believe that the NFL’s wealthiest fans stuffed their carry-on luggage with searing libidinal hunger. Though by day they pretended to be mercantile saints from the pages of the Wall Street Journal, they were actually marauding sex fiends. Their plot: Turn Hilton hot tubs into naked versions of the New York Stock Exchange.

And if that wasn’t enough to scare the good citizens of Dallas, women’s groups slathered the plot with surplus outrage. Up to 38,000 of these hookers would be child sex slaves, according to a study by the Dallas Women’s Foundation. They’d presumably been kidnapped en masse while waiting in line at the mall Cinnabon, then shipped to Dallas for deflowering by venture capitalists and frozen-food barons.

America’s human trafficking epidemic was coming to North Texas. The Super Bowl would be ground zero.

Conveniently, the same people making the claims reserved the roles of hero for themselves. Worry not, good people of Dallas: They would repel the infidels at the city gates.

Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott puffed his chest and promised dozens of extra bodies. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and Homeland Security linked arms with 13 state and local police agencies in a task force. Even the airline industry leaped in, training flight attendants to spot the indentured.

Linda Smith, a former Washington congresswoman and founder of Shared Hope International, announced her date with gallantry in The Dallas Morning News. “Now that I know it, I have no choice but to stand and fight,” she said. “This is just brutal, brutal slavery of girls.”

Deena Graves, executive director of the Christian group Traffick911, took it even further, framing the clash as nothing short of Jesus vs. Depravity. God Himself had naturally anointed her as His general.

“We believe, without a doubt, that God gave us the Super Bowl this year to raise awareness of what’s happening with these kids,” she told the Morning News.

But since they hadn’t bothered to do the research, they would be forced to clash swords with an imaginary foe. Such is the burden of the selfless crusader.

From Germany to Miami, the same hysteria precedes every big sporting event, be it the Super Bowl, the World Cup, or the Olympics. The only difference is that Dallas, befitting its perch as buckle of the Bible Belt, jacked up the decibels.

Before every big game, church bells ring of a massive hooker invasion. Incurious newspapers parrot the claims;a five-minute Google search being too much trouble. Then politicians and activists climb aboard.

The recipe for civic panic is placed in the oven, set for baking to a charred husk.

Yet when each event ends with just a handful of arrests, police admit the invasion was nothing more than myth. The panic whimpers away to seclusion, only to resurrect itself just in time for the next big show.

Detectives from Dallas to Plano, Forth Worth to Irving saw no spikes in sex traffic or signs of the occupiers.

“Everybody else is talking about special operations, the AG comes in talking about special operations, but this is what we do,” says Sergeant Byron Fassett, head of the Dallas PD’s human trafficking unit. “We didn’t have to do a special operation. We do special operations all the time, and this was one of them.”

In other words, it was just another week of playing cat and mouse with the world’s oldest profession.

Arlington, host to the game, unleashed extra manpower and bagged an impressive 59 arrests. But it found scant evidence of erotic hordes. Of the 100,000 supposedly Lone Star-bound hookers, Deputy Chief Jaime Ayala says, only 13 were found by his guys. Their busts largely involved rousting the local talent.

ICE Spokesman Carl Rusnok says there were 105 prostitution arrests metro-wide. But what was billed as a bare-naked onslaught fell rather short. Just to reach three figures, ICE had to include 12 Class C misdemeanors—the legal equivalent of a speeding ticket.

Rusnok hints at more nefarious busts for human trafficking, but he refuses to provide names, charges or anything else that would allow for verification.

The 38,000 teen slaves also proved elusive. Police managed to find just two—and they were Texas-grown.

Anthony Winn, a 35-year-old degenerate from Austin, had been pimping out a 20-year-old woman when he decided to peddle her 14-year-old sister as well.

The trio showed up in Dallas for the big game. But the older sister objected to the selling of the younger one. So when Dallas police encountered them on the street, the women quickly ratted out Winn.

In Grapevine, another local was busted for chauffeuring a 17-year-old hooker on her rounds.

Meanwhile, church groups and activists were out en masse. But if they were truly aligned with God, He preferred they stick to generating headlines and hurling logs on the flames of panic. He apparently neglected to grant them the power of rescue. As far as anyone can tell, not one of their tips led to an arrest. Had anyone bothered to ask police in previous Super Bowl cities, they would have told you this would happen. There’s zero evidence that American hookers have ever traveled like Spanish armadas.

As for widespread sex slavery, this too is a myth. The U.S. government has known it for years.

Like most industrialized countries, the feds began worrying about human trafficking in the late ’90s, a fear born from the slavery problems of the Third World. At the time, evidence from police suggested it was an insidious, though relatively rare, crime. But that didn’t stop politicians and activists from declaring it a pandemic.

Out of thin air, they began to trumpet that 50,000 people were being forcibly trafficked in America each year. The

Clinton administration declared jihad. President George W. Bush dilated the war, creating 42 Justice Department task forces countrywide.

But when you weld a fabricated enemy, meager scalp counts leave boasting a challenge. Just like the soldiers of pre-Super Bowl Dallas, they had braced themselves for imaginary strife.

Six years into his presidency, Bush had burned through $150 million on the fray. But of the 300,000 supposed victims during that time, the Justice Department managed to find just 1,362. Less than half were actual sex slaves. An even smaller number were underage prostitutes.

That’s because human trafficking, as defined by the government, isn’t solely about sex. It’s usually about forced labor. Think of the Chinese man made to work in a kitchen to reimburse a snakehead’s smuggling fee. Or the Mexican kid forced to toil on a Kansas farm.

By the time anyone realized all that money was flowing for naught, no one was brave enough to tighten the spigot. In Washington, it’s far better to waste millions than give the appearance you don’t care about kids.

Steve Wagner knows this. He worked for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, serving as director of the Human Trafficking Program under Bush. He threw millions of dollars at community groups to aid victims. Yet as he told the Washington Post in 2007, “Those funds were wasted….They were available to help victims. There weren’t any victims.”

Ten years into the war, one might assume intellectual honesty would sand down the rhetoric. But the opposite is happening. The fight’s simply moved away from protecting women and children. It’s now a holy war for the sanctity of revenue streams.

The church and women’s groups who profited from battle are loath to acknowledge they spent the past decade doing little more than polishing their guns. So forgive them for worrying.

Recession has made donations harder to field. D.C.’s coming austerity means grants will be macheted. That’s left the nonprofit world in a panic.

It isn’t easy to get donors and congressmen to slap down checks for the time-honored fight against prostitution, runaways and kids seeking the fascinating life of a crack head.

So women’s and children’s groups simply decided to change their PR. Suddenly, prostitution was no longer about prostitution. It was all about sexual slavery and human trafficking. And they began blowing up their numbers with helium.

But maybe Traffick911′s Deena Graves is right. Perhaps God has called her and others to fight demons unseen by the re st of us. It’s just that he hasn’t given them the power to find all those victims. He does work in mysterious ways, after all.

–With Reporting by Patrick MichelsInquiry fails to find single trafficker who forced anybody into prostitution

By Nick Davies – The Guardian News, Tuesday October 20, 
The UK’s biggest ever investigation of sex trafficking failed to find a single person who had forced anybody into prostitution in spite of hundreds of raids on sex workers in a six-month campaign by government departments, specialist agencies and every police force in the country.

A man is driving down a deserted stretch of highway when he notices a sign out of the corner of his eye....It reads:


He thinks this is a figment of his imagination
and drives on without second thought....

Soon he sees another sign which reads:


Suddenly he begins to realize that these signs are for real and drives past a third sign saying:


His curiosity gets the best of him and he pulls into the drive. On the far side of the parking lot is a stone building with a small sign next to the door reading:


He climbs the steps and rings the bell. The door is answered by a nun in a long black habit who asks, "What may we do for you my son?"

He answers, "I saw your signs along the highway and was interested in possibly doing business...."

"Very well my son. Please follow me." He is led through many winding passages and is soon quite disoriented. The nun stops at a closed door and tells the man, "Please knock on this door . "

He does so and another nun in a long habit, holding a tin cup answers the door... This nun instructs, "Please place $100 in the cup then go through the large wooden door at the end of the hallway."

He puts $100 in the cup, eagerly trots down the hall and slips through the door pulling it shut behind him.

The door locks, and he finds himself back in the parking lot facing another sign:


SPOKANE MUNICIPAL CODETitle 10 Regulation of Activities

Division I. Penal Code

Chapter 10.06 Offenses Against Decency and MoralitySection 10.06.030 Prostitution – Prostitution Loitering

Prostitution Prohibited.
It is unlawful for any person to commit any act of prostitution or prostitution loitering.
A person commits prostitution if the person engages or agrees or offers to engage in sexual conduct with another person in return for any form of compensation.
A person commits prostitution loitering if the person loiters in or near any thoroughfare or public place in a manner and under circumstances manifesting the purpose of inducing, enticing, soliciting, or procuring another to commit prostitution. Among the circumstances which may be considered in determining whether the actor intends prohibited conduct are: the subject is a known prostitute or promoter of prostitution; repeatedly beckons to, stops, or attempts to stop, or engages in conversation with passersby; repeatedly stops or attempts to stop motor vehicle operators by hailing, waving arms, or any other bodily gesture; circles an area in a motor vehicle and repeatedly beckons, contacts, or stops pedestrians.
Definitions as used in this chapter include: “Known prostitute or promoter of prostitution” means a person who, within one year previous to the date of arrest for violation of this chapter, has within the knowledge of the arresting officer been convicted in any court of an offense involving prostitution. “Public place” is an area generally visible to public view including but not limited to streets, sidewalks, bridges, alleys, plazas, parks, driveways, parking lots, automobiles, buildings open to the public including those which serve food/drink, doorways, and entrances to buildings not open to the general public, but which are open to a certain class or group of the general public through the use of club membership or affiliations with a club or organization, including but not limited to the United States Armed Forces. “Sexual conduct” means “sexual intercourse” as defined in RCW 9A.44.010(1), or “sexual contact” as defined in RCW 9A.44.010(2).
It shall not be a defense to any part of this chapter that the sex of the parties or prospective parties to an act of prostitution or contemplated act of prostitution is the same. Further, it shall not be a defense to any act in this chapter that the person who received, agreed to receive or solicited a fee was male, and the person who paid or agreed to pay such was female.
Prostitution loitering and prostitution are both misdemeanors. Upon conviction for either offense, said person shall be punished by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars, confinement of up to ninety days, or a combination of a fine and confinement.

Date Passed: Monday, July 21, 2008

Effective Date: Wednesday, August 27, 2008

ORD C34269 Section 1

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