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United States Code is a consolidation and codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the United States. It is prepared by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the United States House of Representatives..

More Search Tool's To Help You and websites + http://uscode.house.gov/ 

Specific Code Sections of Importance from Westlaw Books & Citizens Court Watch !

5 USC Sec. 556 Hearings; presiding employees; powers and duties; burden of proof; evidence; record as basis of decision

5 USC Sec. 706  SCOPE OF REVIEW

18 USC Sec. 241   CONSPIRACY AGAINST RIGHTS

18 USC Sec. 242  DEPRIVATION OF RIGHTS UNDER COLOR OF LAW

18 USC 1961         DEFINITIONS

18 USC Sec. 1962  RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS

18 USC Sec. 1963  CRIMINAL PENALTIES

18 USC Sec. 1964  CIVIL REMEDIES

18 USC Sec. 1965  VENUE AND PROCESS  

18 USC Sec. 1966  EXPEDITION OF ACTIONS

18 USC Sec. 1967  EVIDENCE

18 USC Sec. 1968  CIVIL INVESTIGATIVE DEMAND

28 USC Sec. 1343  CIVIL RIGHTS AND ELECTIVE FRANCHISE   

28 USC Sec. 1443  CIVIL RIGHTS CASES

28 USC Sec. 1446   PROCEDURE FOR REMOVAL

42 USC Sec. 1441  CONGRESSIONAL DECLARATION OF NATIONAL HOUSING HOUSING

42 USC Sec. 1981  EQUAL RIGHTS UNDER THE LAW

42 USC Sec. 1982 PROPERTY RIGHTS OF CITIZENS

42 USC Sec. 1983  CIVIL ACTION FOR DEPRIVATION OF RIGHTS

42 USC Sec. 1985  CONSPIRACY TO INTERFERE WITH CIVIL RIGHTS

42 USC Sec. 1986  ACTION FROM NEGLECT TO PREVENT

43 USCA SEC. 859 PUBLIC LANDS - RESERVATIONS AND GRANTS TO STATES FOR PUBLIC PURPOSES

CITE-  18 USC Sec. 241                                              01/16/96
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
    PART I - CRIMES
    CHAPTER 13 - CIVIL RIGHTS

 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 241. Conspiracy against rights
 
-STATUTE-
      If two or more persons conspire to injure, oppress, threaten, or
    intimidate any person in any State, Territory, or District in the
    free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege secured to him
    by the Constitution or laws of the United States, or because of his
    having so exercised the same; or
      If two or more persons go in disguise on the highway, or on the
    premises of another, with intent to prevent or hinder his free
    exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege so secured -
      They shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than
    ten years, or both; and if death results from the acts committed in
    violation of this section or if such acts include kidnapping or an
    attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or an attempt to commit
    aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, they shall be fined
    under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or for life,
    or both, or may be sentenced to death.
 
-SOURCE-
    (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 696; Apr. 11, 1968, Pub. L.
    90-284, title I, Sec. 103(a), 82 Stat. 75; Nov. 18, 1988, Pub. L.
    100-690, title VII, Sec. 7018(a), (b)(1), 102 Stat. 4396; Sept. 13,
    1994, Pub. L. 103-322, title VI, Sec. 60006(a), title XXXII, Sec.
    320103(a), 320201(a), title XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(L), 108 Stat.
    1970, 2109, 2113, 2147.)
 
-MISC1-
                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
      Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 51 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.
    321, Sec. 19, 35 Stat. 1092).
      Clause making conspirator ineligible to hold office was omitted
    as incongruous because it attaches ineligibility to hold office to
    a person who may be a private citizen and who was convicted of
    conspiracy to violate a specific statute.  There seems to be no
    reason for imposing such a penalty in the case of one individual
    crime, in view of the fact that other crimes do not carry such a
    severe consequence.  The experience of the Department of Justice is
    that this unusual penalty has been an obstacle to successful
    prosecutions for violations of the act.
      Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.
      Minor changes in phraseology were made.
                                 AMENDMENTS
      1994 - Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320201(a), substituted ''person in
    any State'' for ''inhabitant of any State'' in first par.
      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(a)(1), 330016(1)(L), amended section
    identically, substituting ''They shall be fined under this title''
    for ''They shall be fined not more than $10,000'' in third par.
      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(a)(2)-(4), in third par.,
    substituted ''results from the acts committed in violation of this
    section or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap,
    aggravated sexual abuse or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual
    abuse, or an attempt to kill, they shall be fined under this title
    or imprisoned for any term of years or for life, or both'' for
    ''results, they shall be subject to imprisonment for any term of
    years or for life''.
      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 60006(a), substituted '', or may be
    sentenced to death.'' for period at end of third par.
      1988 - Pub. L. 100-690 struck out ''of citizens'' after
    ''rights'' in section catchline and substituted ''inhabitant of any
    State, Territory, or District'' for ''citizen'' in text.
      1968 - Pub. L. 90-284 increased limitation on fines from $5,000
    to $10,000 and provided for imprisonment for any term of years or
    for life when death results.
 
-CROSS-
                              CROSS REFERENCES
      Action for neglect to prevent, see section 1986 of Title 42, The
    Public Health and Welfare.
      Conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud United States, see
    section 371 of this title.
      Conspiracy to interfere with civil rights, see section 1985 of
    Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.
      Proceedings in vindication of civil rights, see section 1988 of
    Title 42.


-CITE-  18 USC Sec. 242                                              01/16/96
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
    PART I - CRIMES
    CHAPTER 13 - CIVIL RIGHTS
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 242. Deprivation of rights under color of law
 
-STATUTE-
      Whoever, under color of any law, statute, ordinance, regulation,
    or custom, willfully subjects any person in any State, Territory,
    or District to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or
    immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the
    United States, or to different punishments, pains, or penalties, on
    account of such person being an alien, or by reason of his color,
    or race, than are prescribed for the punishment of citizens, shall
    be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or
    both; and if bodily injury results from the acts committed in
    violation of this section or if such acts include the use,
    attempted use, or threatened use of a dangerous weapon, explosives,
    or fire, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more
    than ten years, or both; and if death results from the acts
    committed in violation of this section or if such acts include
    kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse, or an
    attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill,
    shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned for any term of
    years or for life, or both, or may be sentenced to death.
 
-SOURCE-
    (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 696; Apr. 11, 1968, Pub. L.
    90-284, title I, Sec. 103(b), 82 Stat. 75; Nov. 18, 1988, Pub. L.
    100-690, title VII, Sec. 7019, 102 Stat. 4396; Sept. 13, 1994, Pub.
    L. 103-322, title VI, Sec. 60006(b), title XXXII, Sec. 320103(b),
    320201(b), title XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(H), 108 Stat. 1970, 2109,
    2113, 2147.)
 
-MISC1-
                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
      Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 52 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.
    321, Sec. 20, 35 Stat. 1092).
      Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as
    unnecessary in view of definition of ''principal'' in section 2 of
    this title.
      A minor change was made in phraseology.
                                 AMENDMENTS
      1994 - Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320201(b), substituted ''any person
    in any State'' for ''any inhabitant of any State'' and ''on account
    of such person'' for ''on account of such inhabitant''.
      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(b)(1), 330016(1)(H), amended section
    identically, substituting ''shall be fined under this title'' for
    ''shall be fined not more than $1,000'' after ''citizens,''.
      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(b)(2)-(5), substituted ''bodily
    injury results from the acts committed in violation of this section
    or if such acts include the use, attempted use, or threatened use
    of a dangerous weapon, explosives, or fire, shall be fined under
    this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if
    death results from the acts committed in violation of this section
    or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap,
    aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual
    abuse, or an attempt to kill, shall be fined under this title, or
    imprisoned for any term of years or for life, or both'' for
    ''bodily injury results shall be fined under this title or
    imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if death results
    shall be subject to imprisonment for any term of years or for
    life''.
      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 60006(b), inserted before period at end '',
    or may be sentenced to death''.
      1988 - Pub. L. 100-690 inserted ''and if bodily injury results
    shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten
    years, or both;'' after ''or both;''.
      1968 - Pub. L. 90-284 provided for imprisonment for any term of
    years or for life when death results.
 
-CROSS-
                              CROSS REFERENCES
      Civil action for deprivation of rights, see section 1983 of Title
    42, The Public Health and Welfare.
      Equal rights under the law, see section 1981 of Title 42.
      Minor offenses tried by United States magistrate judges as
    excluding offenses punishable under this section, see section 3401
    of this title.
      Proceedings in vindication of civil rights, see section 1988 of
    Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.


-CITE-   28 USC Sec. 1343                                             01/16/96 

-EXPCITE-

    TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

    PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE

    CHAPTER 85 - DISTRICT COURTS; JURISDICTION 

-HEAD-

    Sec. 1343. Civil rights and elective franchise 

-STATUTE-

      (a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any

    civil action authorized by law to be commenced by any person:

        (1) To recover damages for injury to his person or property, or

      because of the deprivation of any right or privilege of a citizen

      of the United States, by any act done in furtherance of any

      conspiracy mentioned in section 1985 of Title 42;

        (2) To recover damages from any person who fails to prevent or

      to aid in preventing any wrongs mentioned in section 1985 of

      Title 42 which he had knowledge were about to occur and power to

      prevent;

        (3) To redress the deprivation, under color of any State law,

      statute, ordinance, regulation, custom or usage, of any right,

      privilege or immunity secured by the Constitution of the United

      States or by any Act of Congress providing for equal rights of

      citizens or of all persons within the jurisdiction of the United

      States;

        (4) To recover damages or to secure equitable or other relief

      under any Act of Congress providing for the protection of civil

      rights, including the right to vote.

      (b) For purposes of this section -

        (1) the District of Columbia shall be considered to be a State;

      and

        (2) any Act of Congress applicable exclusively to the District

      of Columbia shall be considered to be a statute of the District

      of Columbia. 

-SOURCE-

    (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 932; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263,

    Sec. 42, 68 Stat. 1241; Sept. 9, 1957, Pub. L. 85-315, part III,

    Sec. 121, 71 Stat. 637; Dec. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96-170, Sec. 2, 93

    Stat. 1284.) 


-MISC1-

                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

      Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 41(12), (13), and (14)

    (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, Sec. 24, pars. 12, 13, 14, 36 Stat. 1092).

      Words ''civil action'' were substituted for ''suits,'' ''suits at

    law or in equity'' in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil

    Procedure.

      Numerous changes were made in arrangement and phraseology.

                                 AMENDMENTS

      1979 - Pub. L. 96-170 designated existing provisions as subsec.

    (a) and added subsec. (b).

      1957 - Pub. L. 85-315 inserted ''and elective franchise'' in

    section catchline and added par. (4).

      1954 - Act Sept. 3, 1954, substituted ''section 1985 of Title

    42'' for ''section 47 of Title 8'' wherever appearing.

                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1979 AMENDMENT

      Section 3 of Pub. L. 96-170 provided that: ''The amendments made

    by this Act (amending this section and section 1983 of Title 42,

    The Public Health and Welfare) shall apply with respect to any

    deprivation of rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the

    Constitution and laws occurring after the date of the enactment of

    this Act (Dec. 29, 1979).''

-CROSS-

                              CROSS REFERENCES

      Generally, see section 1981 et seq. of Title 42, The Public

    Health and Welfare.

      Amount in controversy immaterial in action under this section,

    see Historical and Revision Notes under section 1331 of this title.

      Civil action for deprivation of civil rights, see section 1983 of

    Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

      Civil action or injunction for deprivation of voting rights, see

    section 1971 of Title 42.

      Conspiracy against rights of citizens constituting federal crime,

    see section 241 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

      Conspiracy to interfere with civil rights, see section 1985 of

    Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

      Diversity of citizenship immaterial in action under this section,

    see Historical and Revision Notes under section 1332 of this title. 

-SECREF-

                   SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

      This section is referred to in section 652 of this title.


CITE-   28 USC Sec. 1443                                             01/16/96 

-EXPCITE-

    TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

    PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE

    CHAPTER 89 - DISTRICT COURTS; REMOVAL OF CASES FROM STATE COURTS 

-HEAD-

    Sec. 1443. Civil rights cases 

-STATUTE-

      Any of the following civil actions or criminal prosecutions,

    commenced in a State court may be removed by the defendant to the

    district court of the United States for the district and division

    embracing the place wherein it is pending:

        (1) Against any person who is denied or cannot enforce in the

      courts of such State a right under any law providing for the

      equal civil rights of citizens of the United States, or of all

      persons within the jurisdiction thereof;

        (2) For any act under color of authority derived from any law

      providing for equal rights, or for refusing to do any act on the

      ground that it would be inconsistent with such law. 


-SOURCE-

    (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 938.) 


-MISC1-

                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

      Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 74 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch.

    231, Sec. 31, 36 Stat. 1096).

      Other provisions of section 74 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are

    incorporated in sections 1446 and 1447 of this title.

      Words ''or in the part of the State where such suit or

    prosecution is pending'' after ''courts of such States,'' were

    omitted as unnecessary.

      Changes were made in phraseology. 

-CROSS-

                      FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE

      Application of rules, see rule 81, Appendix to this title.

      Continuation of section under rule 81, see note by Advisory

    Committee under rule 81.

                              CROSS REFERENCES

      Stay of State court proceedings, see section 2283 of this title. 

-SECREF-

                   SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

      This section is referred to in section 1447 of this title.

-CITE-   28 USC Sec. 1446                                             01/16/96 

-EXPCITE-

    TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

    PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE

    CHAPTER 89 - DISTRICT COURTS; REMOVAL OF CASES FROM STATE COURTS 


-HEAD-

    Sec. 1446. Procedure for removal 


-STATUTE-

      (a) A defendant or defendants desiring to remove any civil action

    or criminal prosecution from a State court shall file in the

    district court of the United States for the district and division

    within which such action is pending a notice of removal signed

    pursuant to Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and

    containing a short and plain statement of the grounds for removal,

    together with a copy of all process, pleadings, and orders served

    upon such defendant or defendants in such action.

      (b) The notice of removal of a civil action or proceeding shall

    be filed within thirty days after the receipt by the defendant,

    through service or otherwise, of a copy of the initial pleading

    setting forth the claim for relief upon which such action or

    proceeding is based, or within thirty days after the service of

    summons upon the defendant if such initial pleading has then been

    filed in court and is not required to be served on the defendant,

    whichever period is shorter.

      If the case stated by the initial pleading is not removable, a

    notice of removal may be filed within thirty days after receipt by

    the defendant, through service or otherwise, of a copy of an

    amended pleading, motion, order or other paper from which it may

    first be ascertained that the case is one which is or has become

    removable, except that a case may not be removed on the basis of

    jurisdiction conferred by section 1332 of this title more than 1

    year after commencement of the action.

      (c)(1) A notice of removal of a criminal prosecution shall be

    filed not later than thirty days after the arraignment in the State

    court, or at any time before trial, whichever is earlier, except

    that for good cause shown the United States district court may

    enter an order granting the petitioner leave to file the notice at

    a later time.

      (2) A notice of removal of a criminal prosecution shall include

    all grounds for such removal.  A failure to state grounds which

    exist at the time of the filing of the notice shall constitute a

    waiver of such grounds, and a second notice may be filed only on

    grounds not existing at the time of the original notice.  For good

    cause shown, the United States district court may grant relief from

    the limitations of this paragraph.

      (3) The filing of a notice of removal of a criminal prosecution

    shall not prevent the State court in which such prosecution is

    pending from proceeding further, except that a judgment of

    conviction shall not be entered unless the prosecution is first

    remanded.

      (4) The United States district court in which such notice is

    filed shall examine the notice promptly.  If it clearly appears on

    the face of the notice and any exhibits annexed thereto that

    removal should not be permitted, the court shall make an order for

    summary remand.

      (5) If the United States district court does not order the

    summary remand of such prosecution, it shall order an evidentiary

    hearing to be held promptly and after such hearing shall make such

    disposition of the prosecution as justice shall require.  If the

    United States district court determines that removal shall be

    permitted, it shall so notify the State court in which prosecution

    is pending, which shall proceed no further.

      (d) Promptly after the filing of such notice of removal of a

    civil action the defendant or defendants shall give written notice

    thereof to all adverse parties and shall file a copy of the notice

    with the clerk of such State court, which shall effect the removal

    and the State court shall proceed no further unless and until the

    case is remanded.

      (e) If the defendant or defendants are in actual custody on

    process issued by the State court, the district court shall issue

    its writ of habeas corpus, and the marshal shall thereupon take

    such defendant or defendants into his custody and deliver a copy of

    the writ to the clerk of such State court.

      (f) With respect to any counterclaim removed to a district court

    pursuant to section 337(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, the district

    court shall resolve such counterclaim in the same manner as an

    original complaint under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure,

    except that the payment of a filing fee shall not be required in

    such cases and the counterclaim shall relate back to the date of

    the original complaint in the proceeding before the International

    Trade Commission under section 337 of that Act. 


-SOURCE-

    (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 939; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, Sec.

    83, 63 Stat. 101; Sept. 29, 1965, Pub. L. 89-215, 79 Stat. 887;

    July 30, 1977, Pub. L. 95-78, Sec. 3, 91 Stat. 321; Nov. 19, 1988,

    Pub. L. 100-702, title X, Sec. 1016(b), 102 Stat. 4669; Dec. 9,

    1991, Pub. L. 102-198, Sec. 10(a), 105 Stat. 1626; Dec. 8, 1994,

    Pub. L. 103-465, title III, Sec. 321(b)(2), 108 Stat. 4946.) 


-MISC1-

                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

                                  1948 ACT

      Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 72, 74, 75, 76 (May 3,

    1911, ch. 231, Sec. 29, 31, 32, 33, 36 Stat. 1095, 1097; Aug. 23,

    1916, ch. 399, 39 Stat. 532; July 30, 1977, Pub. L. 95-78, Sec. 3,

    91 Stat. 321.)

      Section consolidates portions of sections 74, 75, and 76 with

    section 72 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with important changes of

    substance and phraseology.

      Subsection (a), providing for the filing of the removal petition

    in the district court, is substituted for the requirement of

    sections 72 and 74 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that the petition

    be filed in the State court.  This conforms to the method

    prescribed by section 76 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and to the

    recommendation of United States District Judges Calvin W. Chesnut

    and T. Waties Warring approved by the Committee of the Judicial

    Conference on the Revision of the Judicial Code.

      Subsection (b) makes uniform the time for filing petitions to

    remove all civil actions within twenty days after commencement of

    action or service of process whichever is later, instead of ''at

    any time before the defendant is required by the laws of the State

    or the rule of the State court in which such suit is brought to

    answer or plead'' as required by section 72 of title 28, U.S.C.,

    1940 ed.  As thus revised, the section will give adequate time and

    operate uniformly throughout the Federal jurisdiction.  The

    provisions of sections 74 and 76 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for

    filing at any time ''before trial or final hearing'' in civil

    rights cases and cases involving revenue officers, court officers

    and officers of either House of Congress were omitted.

      Subsection (c) embodies the provisions of sections 74 and 76 of

    title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for filing the removal petition before

    trial and makes them applicable to all criminal prosecutions but

    not to civil actions.  This provision was retained to protect

    Federal officers enforcing revenue or criminal laws from being

    rushed to trial in State courts before petition for removal could

    be filed.  Words ''or final hearing'' following the words ''before

    trial,'' were omitted for purposes of clarity and simplification of

    procedure.

      The provision of said section 76 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.,

    for certificate of counsel that he has examined the proceedings and

    carefully inquired into all matters set forth in the petition and

    believes them to be true, was omitted as unnecessary and

    inconsistent with Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

      Subsection (d) is derived from sections 72 and 74 of title 28,

    U.S.C., 1940 ed., but the requirement for cost bond is limited to

    civil actions in conformity with the more enlightened trend of

    modern procedure to remove all unnecessary impediments to the

    administration of criminal justice.  Provisions of said section 72

    as to the conditions of the bond were rewritten because

    inappropriate when the petition for removal is filed in the Federal

    court.

      Subsection (e) provides for notice to the adverse parties and for

    the filing in the State court of a copy of the petition for removal

    in substitution for the requirements of sections 72 and 74 of title

    28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for the filing of the removal petition in the

    State court.  The last sentence of subsection (e) is derived from

    sections 72, 74 and 76 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

      Subsection (f) is derived from sections 75 and 76 of title 28,

    U.S.C., 1940 ed.

      Since the procedure in removal cases is now governed by the

    Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (Rule 81(c)) and Federal Rules of

    Criminal Procedure (Rule 54(b)), the detailed directions of the

    various sections with respect to such procedure were omitted as

    unnecessary.

      Thus the provision of section 72 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.,

    with respect to appearance, special bail and filing the record were

    omitted as covered by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Rules

    64, 81(c).

      The provisions of section 74 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., as to

    the effect of security and other proceedings and remedies in the

    State court were omitted as covered by section 1450 of this title.

      The requirements of section 74 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.,

    that the clerk of the State court shall furnish copies of pleadings

    and proceedings to the petitioner and that the petitioner shall

    file the same in the district court are covered by section 1447 of

    this title.

      The provisions of section 74 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.,

    requiring the adverse parties to plead anew in the district court

    were omitted as unnecessary in view of Federal Rules of Civil

    Procedure, Rule 81(c). The last sentence of such section was

    omitted as covered by section 1447(d) of this title.

                                  1949 ACT

      Subsection (b) of section 1446 of title 28, U.S.C., as revised,

    has been found to create difficulty in those States, such as New

    York, where suit is commenced by the service of a summons and the

    plaintiff's initial pleading is not required to be served or filed

    until later.

      The first paragraph of the amendment to subsection (b) corrects

    this situation by providing that the petition for removal need not

    be filed until 20 days after the defendant has received a copy of

    the plaintiff's initial pleading.

      This provision, however, without more, would create further

    difficulty in those States, such as Kentucky, where suit is

    commenced by the filing of the plaintiff's initial pleading and the

    issuance and service of a summons without any requirement that a

    copy of the pleading be served upon or otherwise furnished to the

    defendant.  Accordingly the first paragraph of the amendment

    provides that in such cases the petition for removal shall be filed

    within 20 days after the service of the summons.

      The first paragraph of the amendment conforms to the amendment of

    rule 81(c) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, relating to

    removed actions, adopted by the Supreme Court on December 29, 1948,

    and reported by the Court to the present session of Congress.

      The second paragraph of the amendment to subsection (b) is

    intended to make clear that the right of removal may be exercised

    at a later stage of the case if the initial pleading does not state

    a removable case but its removability is subsequently disclosed.

    This is declaratory of the existing rule laid down by the

    decisions. (See for example, Powers v.  Chesapeake etc., Ry. Co.,

    169 U.S. 92.)

      In addition, this amendment clarifies the intent of section

    1446(e) of title 28, U.S.C., to indicate that notice need not be

    given simultaneously with the filing, but may be given promptly

    thereafter.

-REFTEXT-

                             REFERENCES IN TEXT

      The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsecs. (a)

    and (f), are set out in the Appendix to this title.

      Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, referred to in subsec.

    (f), is classified to section 1337 of Title 19, Customs Duties. 
 

-MISC2-

                                 AMENDMENTS

      1994 - Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103-465 added subsec. (f).

      1991 - Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 102-198, Sec. 10(a)(1), (4),

    substituted ''notice of'' for ''petition for'' and ''the notice''

    for ''the petition''.

      Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 102-198, Sec. 10(a)(1), (4), substituted

    ''notice of'' for ''petition for'' and substituted ''notice'' for

    ''petition'' in three places.

      Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 102-198, Sec. 10(a)(1), (2), substituted

    ''notice of'' for ''petition for'' and ''prosecution is first

    remanded'' for ''petition is first denied''.

      Subsec. (c)(4), (5). Pub. L. 102-198, Sec. 10(a)(3), added pars.

    (4) and (5) and struck out former pars. (4) and (5) which read as

    follows:

      ''(4) The United States district court to which such petition is

    directed shall examine the petition promptly.  If it clearly

    appears on the face of the petition and any exhibits annexed

    thereto that the petition for removal should not be granted, the

    court shall make an order for its summary dismissal.

      ''(5) If the United States district court does not order the

    summary dismissal of such petition, it shall order an evidentiary

    hearing to be held promptly and after such hearing shall make such

    disposition of the petition as justice shall require.  If the

    United States district court determines that such petition shall be

    granted, it shall so notify the State court in which prosecution is

    pending, which shall proceed no further.''

      Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102-198, Sec. 10(a)(1), (4), (5),

    substituted ''notice of removal'' for ''petition for the removal'',

    struck out ''and bond'' after ''civil action'', and substituted

    ''notice with'' for ''petition with''.

      1988 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100-702, Sec. 1016(b)(1), amended

    subsec. (a) generally.  Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as

    follows: ''A defendant or defendants desiring to remove any civil

    action or criminal prosecution from a State court shall file in the

    district court of the United States for the district and division

    within which such action is pending a verified petition containing

    a short and plain statement of the facts which entitle him or them

    to removal together with a copy of all process, pleadings and

    orders served upon him or them in such action.''

      Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100-702, Sec. 1016(b)(2), substituted

    ''notice of removal'' for ''petition for removal'' in two places

    and inserted before period at end of second par. '', except that a

    case may not be removed on the basis of jurisdiction conferred by

    section 1332 of this title more than 1 year after commencement of

    the action''.

      Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 100-702, Sec. 1016(b)(3),

    redesignated subsecs. (e) and (f) as (d) and (e), respectively, and

    struck out former subsec. (d) which read as follows: ''Each

    petition for removal of a civil action or proceeding, except a

    petition in behalf of the United States, shall be accompanied by a

    bond with good and sufficient surety conditioned that the defendant

    or defendants will pay all costs and disbursements incurred by

    reason of the removal proceedings should it be determined that the

    case was not removable or was improperly removed.''

      1977 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95-78, Sec. 3(a), designated existing

    provisions as par. (1), set a period of 30 days as the maximum

    allowable time prior to commencement of trial and following

    arraignment during which time a petition for removal can be filed,

    provided for the grant of additional time for good cause shown, and

    added pars. (2) to (5).

      Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95-78, Sec. 3(b), inserted ''for the removal

    of a civil action'' after ''filing of such petition''.

      1965 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89-215 substituted ''thirty days''

    for ''twenty days'' wherever appearing.

      1949 - Subsec. (b). Act May 24, 1949, Sec. 83(a), provided that

    the petition for removal need not be filed until 20 days after the

    defendant has received a copy of the plaintiff's initial pleading,

    and provided that the petition for removal shall be filed within 20

    days after the service of summons.

      Subsec. (e). Act May 24, 1949, Sec. 83(b), indicated that notice

    need not be given simultaneously with the filing, but may be made

    promptly thereafter.

                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENT

      Amendment by Pub. L. 103-465 applicable with respect to

    complaints filed under section 1337 of Title 19, Customs Duties, on

    or after the date on which the World Trade Organization Agreement

    enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995),

    or in cases under section 1337 of Title 19 in which no complaint is

    filed, with respect to investigations initiated under such section

    on or after such date, see section 322 of Pub. L. 103-465, set out

    as a note under section 1337 of Title 19.

                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1977 AMENDMENT

      Amendment by Pub. L. 95-78 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 4

    of Pub. L. 95-78, set out as an Effective Date of Pub. L. 95-78

    note under section 3771 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. 


-CROSS-

                      FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE

      Application of Rules of Civil Procedure, see rule 81, Appendix to

    this title.

      Continuation of section under rule 81, see note by Advisory

    Committee under rule 81.

                              CROSS REFERENCES

      Stay of State court proceedings, see section 2283 of this title. 


-SECREF-

                   SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

      This section is referred to in sections 1441, 1447 of this title;

    title 19 section 3473; title 22 sections 283gg, 290i-7, 290k-9,

    290m; title 25 sections 487, 610c, 642, 670; title 42 section 2210.


-CITE-  42 USC Sec. 1981                                             01/16/96
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
    CHAPTER 21 - CIVIL RIGHTS
    SUBCHAPTER I - GENERALLY
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 1981. Equal rights under the law
 
-STATUTE-
    (a) Statement of equal rights
      All persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall
    have the same right in every State and Territory to make and
    enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the
    full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security
    of persons and property as is enjoyed by white citizens, and shall
    be subject to like punishment, pains, penalties, taxes, licenses,
    and exactions of every kind, and to no other.
    (b) ''Make and enforce contracts'' defined
      For purposes of this section, the term ''make and enforce
    contracts'' includes the making, performance, modification, and
    termination of contracts, and the enjoyment of all benefits,
    privileges, terms, and conditions of the contractual relationship.
    (c) Protection against impairment
      The rights protected by this section are protected against
    impairment by nongovernmental discrimination and impairment under
    color of State law.
 
-SOURCE-
    (R.S. Sec. 1977; Pub. L. 102-166, title I, Sec. 101, Nov. 21, 1991,
    105 Stat. 1071.)
 
-COD-
                                CODIFICATION
      R.S. Sec. 1977 derived from act May 31, 1870, ch. 114, Sec. 16,
    16 Stat. 144.
      Section was formerly classified to section 41 of Title 8, Aliens
    and Nationality.
 
-MISC3-
                                 AMENDMENTS
      1991 - Pub. L. 102-166 designated existing provisions as subsec.
    (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c).
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1991 AMENDMENT
      Section 402 of Pub. L. 102-166 provided that:
      ''(a) In General. - Except as otherwise specifically provided,
    this Act (see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note below) and the
    amendments made by this Act shall take effect upon enactment (Nov.
    21, 1991).
      ''(b) Certain Disparate Impact Cases. - Notwithstanding any other
    provision of this Act, nothing in this Act shall apply to any
    disparate impact case for which a complaint was filed before March
    1, 1975, and for which an initial decision was rendered after
    October 30, 1983.''
                       SHORT TITLE OF 1991 AMENDMENT
      Section 1 of Pub. L. 102-166 provided that: ''This Act (enacting
    section 1981a of this title and sections 60l and 1201 to 1224 of
    Title 2, The Congress, amending this section and sections 1988,
    2000e, 2000e-1, 2000e-2, 2000e-4, 2000e-5, 2000e-16, 12111, 12112,
    and 12209 of this title, and section 626 of Title 29, Labor, and
    enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and
    sections 2000e and 2000e-4 of this title, and section 1a-5 of Title
    16, Conservation) may be cited as the 'Civil Rights Act of 1991'.''
                       SHORT TITLE OF 1976 AMENDMENT
      Pub. L. 94-559, which amended section 1988 of this title, is
    known as ''The Civil Rights Attorney's Fees Awards Act of 1976'',
    see note set out under section 1988 of this title.
                                SEVERABILITY
      Section 401 of Pub. L. 102-166 provided that: ''If any provision
    of this Act (see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note above), or an
    amendment made by this Act, or the application of such provision to
    any person or circumstances is held to be invalid, the remainder of
    this Act and the amendments made by this Act, and the application
    of such provision to other persons and circumstances, shall not be
    affected.''
                           CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS
      Section 2 of Pub. L. 102-166 provided that: ''The Congress finds
    that -
        ''(1) additional remedies under Federal law are needed to deter
      unlawful harassment and intentional discrimination in the
      workplace;
        ''(2) the decision of the Supreme Court in Wards Cove Packing
      Co. v.  Atonio, 490 U.S. 642 (1989) has weakened the scope and
      effectiveness of Federal civil rights protections; and
        ''(3) legislation is necessary to provide additional
      protections against unlawful discrimination in employment.''
                         PURPOSES OF 1991 AMENDMENT
      Section 3 of Pub. L. 102-166 provided that: ''The purposes of
    this Act (see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note above) are -
        ''(1) to provide appropriate remedies for intentional
      discrimination and unlawful harassment in the workplace;
        ''(2) to codify the concepts of 'business necessity' and 'job
      related' enunciated by the Supreme Court in Griggs v.  Duke Power
      Co., 401 U.S. 424 (1971), and in the other Supreme Court
      decisions prior to Wards Cove Packing Co. v.  Atonio, 490 U.S.
      642 (1989);
        ''(3) to confirm statutory authority and provide statutory
      guidelines for the adjudication of disparate impact suits under
      title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et
      seq.); and
        ''(4) to respond to recent decisions of the Supreme Court by
      expanding the scope of relevant civil rights statutes in order to
      provide adequate protection to victims of discrimination.''
                   LEGISLATIVE HISTORY FOR 1991 AMENDMENT
      Section 105(b) of Pub. L. 102-166 provided that: ''No statements
    other than the interpretive memorandum appearing at Vol. 137
    Congressional Record S 15276 (daily ed.  Oct. 25, 1991) shall be
    considered legislative history of, or relied upon in any way as
    legislative history in construing or applying, any provision of
    this Act (see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note above) that
    relates to Wards Cove - Business necessity/cumulation/alternative
    business practice.''
                       CONSTRUCTION OF 1991 AMENDMENT
      Section 116 of title I of Pub. L. 102-166 provided that:
    ''Nothing in the amendments made by this title (enacting section
    1981a of this title and amending this section, sections 1988,
    2000e, 2000e-1, 2000e-2, 2000e-4, 2000e-5, 2000e-16, 12111, and
    12112 of this title, and section 626 of Title 29, Labor) shall be
    construed to affect court-ordered remedies, affirmative action, or
    conciliation agreements, that are in accordance with the law.''
                  ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION
      Section 118 of title I of Pub. L. 102-166 provided that: ''Where
    appropriate and to the extent authorized by law, the use of
    alternative means of dispute resolution, including settlement
    negotiations, conciliation, facilitation, mediation, factfinding,
    minitrials, and arbitration, is encouraged to resolve disputes
    arising under the Acts or provisions of Federal law amended by this
    title (enacting section 1981a of this title and amending this
    section, sections 1988, 2000e, 2000e-1, 2000e-2, 2000e-4, 2000e-5,
    2000e-16, 12111, and 12112 of this title, and section 626 of Title
    29, Labor).''
 
-SECREF-
                   SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This section is referred to in sections 1981a, 1988 of this
    title; title 2 sections 1202, 1311.


-CITE-  42 USC Sec. 1983                                             01/16/96
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
    CHAPTER 21 - CIVIL RIGHTS
    SUBCHAPTER I - GENERALLY
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 1983. Civil action for deprivation of rights
 
-STATUTE-
      Every person who, under color of any statute, ordinance,
    regulation, custom, or usage, of any State or Territory or the
    District of Columbia, subjects, or causes to be subjected, any
    citizen of the United States or other person within the
    jurisdiction thereof to the deprivation of any rights, privileges,
    or immunities secured by the Constitution and laws, shall be liable
    to the party injured in an action at law, suit in equity, or other
    proper proceeding for redress.  For the purposes of this section,
    any Act of Congress applicable exclusively to the District of
    Columbia shall be considered to be a statute of the District of
    Columbia.
 
-SOURCE-
    (R.S. Sec. 1979; Pub. L. 96-170, Sec. 1, Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat.
    1284.)
 
-COD-
                                CODIFICATION
      R.S. Sec. 1979 derived from act Apr. 20, 1871, ch. 22, Sec. 1, 17
    Stat. 13.
      Section was formerly classified to section 43 of Title 8, Aliens
    and Nationality.
 
-MISC3-
                                 AMENDMENTS
      1979 - Pub. L. 96-170 inserted ''or the District of Columbia''
    after ''Territory'', and provisions relating to Acts of Congress
    applicable solely to the District of Columbia.
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1979 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by Pub. L. 96-170 applicable with respect to any
    deprivation of rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the
    Constitution and laws occurring after Dec. 29, 1979, see section 3
    of Pub. L. 96-170, set out as a note under section 1343 of Title
    28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
 
-SECREF-
                   SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This section is referred to in sections 1988, 1997e of this
    title.


-CITE-  42 USC Sec. 1985                                             01/16/96
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
    CHAPTER 21 - CIVIL RIGHTS
    SUBCHAPTER I - GENERALLY
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 1985. Conspiracy to interfere with civil rights
 
-STATUTE-
    (1) Preventing officer from performing duties
      If two or more persons in any State or Territory conspire to
    prevent, by force, intimidation, or threat, any person from
    accepting or holding any office, trust, or place of confidence
    under the United States, or from discharging any duties thereof; or
    to induce by like means any officer of the United States to leave
    any State, district, or place, where his duties as an officer are
    required to be performed, or to injure him in his person or
    property on account of his lawful discharge of the duties of his
    office, or while engaged in the lawful discharge thereof, or to
    injure his property so as to molest, interrupt, hinder, or impede
    him in the discharge of his official duties;
    (2) Obstructing justice; intimidating party, witness, or juror
      If two or more persons in any State or Territory conspire to
    deter, by force, intimidation, or threat, any party or witness in
    any court of the United States from attending such court, or from
    testifying to any matter pending therein, freely, fully, and
    truthfully, or to injure such party or witness in his person or
    property on account of his having so attended or testified, or to
    influence the verdict, presentment, or indictment of any grand or
    petit juror in any such court, or to injure such juror in his
    person or property on account of any verdict, presentment, or
    indictment lawfully assented to by him, or of his being or having
    been such juror; or if two or more persons conspire for the purpose
    of impeding, hindering, obstructing, or defeating, in any manner,
    the due course of justice in any State or Territory, with intent to
    deny to any citizen the equal protection of the laws, or to injure
    him or his property for lawfully enforcing, or attempting to
    enforce, the right of any person, or class of persons, to the equal
    protection of the laws;
    (3) Depriving persons of rights or privileges
      If two or more persons in any State or Territory conspire or go
    in disguise on the highway or on the premises of another, for the
    purpose of depriving, either directly or indirectly, any person or
    class of persons of the equal protection of the laws, or of equal
    privileges and immunities under the laws; or for the purpose of
    preventing or hindering the constituted authorities of any State or
    Territory from giving or securing to all persons within such State
    or Territory the equal protection of the laws; or if two or more
    persons conspire to prevent by force, intimidation, or threat, any
    citizen who is lawfully entitled to vote, from giving his support
    or advocacy in a legal manner, toward or in favor of the election
    of any lawfully qualified person as an elector for President or
    Vice President, or as a Member of Congress of the United States; or
    to injure any citizen in person or property on account of such
    support or advocacy; in any case of conspiracy set forth in this
    section, if one or more persons engaged therein do, or cause to be
    done, any act in furtherance of the object of such conspiracy,
    whereby another is injured in his person or property, or deprived
    of having and exercising any right or privilege of a citizen of the
    United States, the party so injured or deprived may have an action
    for the recovery of damages occasioned by such injury or
    deprivation, against any one or more of the conspirators.
 
-SOURCE-
    (R.S. Sec. 1980.)
 
-COD-
                                CODIFICATION
      R.S. Sec. 1980 derived from acts July 31, 1861, ch. 33, 12 Stat.
    284; Apr. 20, 1871, ch. 22, Sec. 2, 17 Stat. 13.
      Section was formerly classified to section 47 of Title 8, Aliens
    and Nationality.
 
-SECREF-
                   SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This section is referred to in sections 1986, 1988 of this title;
    title 28 section 1343.


-CITE-  42 USC Sec. 1986                                             01/16/96
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
    CHAPTER 21 - CIVIL RIGHTS
    SUBCHAPTER I - GENERALLY
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 1986. Action for neglect to prevent
 
-STATUTE-
      Every person who, having knowledge that any of the wrongs
    conspired to be done, and mentioned in section 1985 of this title,
    are about to be committed, and having power to prevent or aid in
    preventing the commission of the same, neglects or refuses so to
    do, if such wrongful act be committed, shall be liable to the party
    injured, or his legal representatives, for all damages caused by
    such wrongful act, which such person by reasonable diligence could
    have prevented; and such damages may be recovered in an action on
    the case; and any number of persons guilty of such wrongful neglect
    or refusal may be joined as defendants in the action; and if the
    death of any party be caused by any such wrongful act and neglect,
    the legal representatives of the deceased shall have such action
    therefor, and may recover not exceeding $5,000 damages therein, for
    the benefit of the widow of the deceased, if there be one, and if
    there be no widow, then for the benefit of the next of kin of the
    deceased.  But no action under the provisions of this section shall
    be sustained which is not commenced within one year after the cause
    of action has accrued.
 
-SOURCE-
    (R.S. Sec. 1981.)
 
-COD-
                                CODIFICATION
      R.S. Sec. 1981 derived from act Apr. 20, 1871, ch. 22, Sec. 6, 17
    Stat. 15.
      Section was formerly classified to section 48 of Title 8, Aliens
    and Nationality.
 
-SECREF-
                   SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This section is referred to in section 1988 of this title.


CHAPTER 1—GENERAL PROVISIONS (§§ 1—26) CHAPTER 2—AIRCRAFT AND MOTOR VEHICLES (§§ 31—40) CHAPTER 3—ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND PLANTS (§§ 41—49) CHAPTER 5—ARSON (§ 81) CHAPTER 7—ASSAULT (§§ 111—119) CHAPTER 9—BANKRUPTCY (§§ 151—158) CHAPTER 10—BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS (§§ 175—178) CHAPTER 11—BRIBERY, GRAFT, AND CONFLICTS OF INTEREST (§§ 201—227) CHAPTER 11A—CHILD SUPPORT (§ 228) CHAPTER 11B—CHEMICAL WEAPONS (§§ 229—229F) CHAPTER 12—CIVIL DISORDERS (§§ 231—233) CHAPTER 13—CIVIL RIGHTS (§§ 241—248) CHAPTER 15—CLAIMS AND SERVICES IN MATTERS AFFECTING GOVERNMENT (§§ 281—293) CHAPTER 17—COINS AND CURRENCY (§§ 331—337) CHAPTER 17A—COMMON CARRIER OPERATION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL OR DRUGS (§§ 341—343) CHAPTER 18—CONGRESSIONAL, CABINET, AND SUPREME COURT ASSASSINATION, KIDNAPPING, AND ASSAULT (§ 351) CHAPTER 19—CONSPIRACY (§§ 371—373) CHAPTER 21—CONTEMPTS (§§ 401—403) CHAPTER 23—CONTRACTS (§§ 431—443) CHAPTER 25—COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY (§§ 470—514) CHAPTER 26—CRIMINAL STREET GANGS (§ 521) CHAPTER 27—CUSTOMS (§§ 541—555) CHAPTER 29—ELECTIONS AND POLITICAL ACTIVITIES (§§ 591—612_to_617) CHAPTER 31—EMBEZZLEMENT AND THEFT (§§ 641—669) CHAPTER 33—EMBLEMS, INSIGNIA, AND NAMES (§§ 700—716) CHAPTER 35—ESCAPE AND RESCUE (§§ 751—758) CHAPTER 37—ESPIONAGE AND CENSORSHIP (§§ 791—799) CHAPTER 39—EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER DANGEROUS ARTICLES (§§ 831—837) CHAPTER 40—IMPORTATION, MANUFACTURE, DISTRIBUTION AND STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS (§§ 841—848) CHAPTER 41—EXTORTION AND THREATS (§§ 871—880) CHAPTER 42—EXTORTIONATE CREDIT TRANSACTIONS (§§ 891—896) CHAPTER 43—FALSE PERSONATION (§§ 911—917) CHAPTER 44—FIREARMS (§§ 921—931) CHAPTER 45—FOREIGN RELATIONS (§§ 951—970) CHAPTER 46—FORFEITURE (§§ 981—987) CHAPTER 47—FRAUD AND FALSE STATEMENTS (§§ 1001—1040) CHAPTER 49—FUGITIVES FROM JUSTICE (§§ 1071—1074) CHAPTER 50—GAMBLING (§§ 1081—1084) CHAPTER 50A—GENOCIDE (§§ 1091—1093) CHAPTER 51—HOMICIDE (§§ 1111—1122) CHAPTER 53—INDIANS (§§ 1151—1170) CHAPTER 55—KIDNAPPING (§§ 1201—1204) CHAPTER 57—LABOR (§§ 1231—1232) CHAPTER 59—LIQUOR TRAFFIC (§§ 1261—1265) CHAPTER 61—LOTTERIES (§§ 1301—1307) CHAPTER 63—MAIL FRAUD AND OTHER FRAUD OFFENSES (§§ 1341—1351) CHAPTER 65—MALICIOUS MISCHIEF (§§ 1361—1369) CHAPTER 67—MILITARY AND NAVY (§§ 1381—1388) [CHAPTER 68—REPEALED] (§ 1401_to_1407) CHAPTER 69—NATIONALITY AND CITIZENSHIP (§§ 1421—1429) CHAPTER 71—OBSCENITY (§§ 1460—1470) CHAPTER 73—OBSTRUCTION OF JUSTICE (§§ 1501—1521) CHAPTER 74—PARTIAL-BIRTH ABORTIONS (§ 1531) CHAPTER 75—PASSPORTS AND VISAS (§§ 1541—1547) CHAPTER 77—PEONAGE, SLAVERY, AND TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS (§§ 1581—1596) CHAPTER 79—PERJURY (§§ 1621—1623) CHAPTER 81—PIRACY AND PRIVATEERING (§§ 1651—1661) CHAPTER 83—POSTAL SERVICE (§§ 1691—1738) CHAPTER 84—PRESIDENTIAL AND PRESIDENTIAL STAFF ASSASSINATION, KIDNAPPING, AND ASSAULT (§§ 1751—1752) CHAPTER 85—PRISON-MADE GOODS (§§ 1761—1762) CHAPTER 87—PRISONS (§§ 1791—1793) CHAPTER 88—PRIVACY (§ 1801) CHAPTER 89—PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS (§ 1821) CHAPTER 90—PROTECTION OF TRADE SECRETS (§§ 1831—1839) CHAPTER 90A—PROTECTION OF UNBORN CHILDREN (§ 1841) CHAPTER 91—PUBLIC LANDS (§§ 1851—1864) CHAPTER 93—PUBLIC OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES (§§ 1901—1924) CHAPTER 95—RACKETEERING (§§ 1951—1960) CHAPTER 96—RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS (§§ 1961—1968) CHAPTER 97—RAILROAD CARRIERS AND MASS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS ON LAND, ON WATER, OR THROUGH THE AIR (§§ 1991—1993) [CHAPTER 99—REPEALED] (§ 2031,_2032) CHAPTER 101—RECORDS AND REPORTS (§§ 2071—2076) CHAPTER 102—RIOTS (§§ 2101—2102) CHAPTER 103—ROBBERY AND BURGLARY (§§ 2111—2119) CHAPTER 105—SABOTAGE (§§ 2151—2157) CHAPTER 107—SEAMEN AND STOWAWAYS (§§ 2191—2199) CHAPTER 109—SEARCHES AND SEIZURES (§§ 2231—2237) CHAPTER 109A—SEXUAL ABUSE (§§ 2241—2248) CHAPTER 109B—SEX OFFENDER AND CRIMES AGAINST CHILDREN REGISTRY (§ 2250) CHAPTER 110—SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND OTHER ABUSE OF CHILDREN (§§ 2251—2260A) CHAPTER 110A—DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND STALKING (§§ 2261—2266) CHAPTER 111—SHIPPING (§§ 2271—2285) CHAPTER 111A—DESTRUCTION OF, OR INTERFERENCE WITH, VESSELS OR MARITIME FACILITIES (§§ 2290—2293) CHAPTER 113—STOLEN PROPERTY (§§ 2311—2323) CHAPTER 113A—TELEMARKETING FRAUD (§§ 2325—2327) CHAPTER 113B—TERRORISM (§§ 2331—2339D) CHAPTER 113C—TORTURE (§§ 2340—2340B) CHAPTER 114—TRAFFICKING IN CONTRABAND CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO (§§ 2341—2346) CHAPTER 115—TREASON, SEDITION, AND SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES (§§ 2381—2391) CHAPTER 117—TRANSPORTATION FOR ILLEGAL SEXUAL ACTIVITY AND RELATED CRIMES (§§ 2421—2428) CHAPTER 118—WAR CRIMES (§§ 2441—2442) CHAPTER 119—WIRE AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS INTERCEPTION AND INTERCEPTION OF ORAL COMMUNICATIONS (§§ 2510—2522) CHAPTER 121—STORED WIRE AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSACTIONAL RECORDS ACCESS (§§ 2701—2712) CHAPTER 123—PROHIBITION ON RELEASE AND USE OF CERTAIN PERSONAL INFORMATION FROM STATE MOTOR VEHICLE RECORDS (§§ 2721—2725)



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