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Being Alert To Common Traits of Stalkers & Don’t Be The Next Target 4 Him / Her

If you read nothing else on this site, please take the time to read this section.  It is extremely important to be aware of the following traits of stalkers. These will alert you to the possibility that a potential suitor or even a friend or acquaintance could become a stalker.

Stalkers will not take no for an answer.

They refuse to believe that a victim is not interested in them or will not rekindle their relationship and often believe that the victim really does love them, but just doesn't know it and needs to be pushed into realizing it. As long as they continue pursuing their victim, the stalker can convince themselves they haven't been completely rejected yet.

Stalkers display an obsessive personality.

They are not just interested in, but totally obsessed with the person they are pursuing. Their every waking thought centers on the victim, and every plan the stalker has for the future involves the victim. Ask yourself this. Is the person totally involved in and completely overwhelmed with pursuing someone who has no and never will have any interest in him or her?

Along with obsessive thinking, they also display other psychological or personality problems and disorders. They may suffer from erotomania, paranoia, schizophrenia, and delusional thinking. According to Professor R. Meloy, "these stalkers have rigid personalities and maladaptive styles. These disorders in themselves are very stable and not treatable." There are drugs to treat certain specific mental disorders, but stalkers, when given the choice, seldom continue with their medication or treatment.

Stalkers are above average in intelligence and are usually smarter than the run of the mill person with mental problems.

They will go to great lengths to obtain information about their victims or to find victims who have secretly moved. They have been known to hack into computers, tap telephone lines, take jobs at public utilities that allow them access to the victims or information about the victims, and even to travel thousands of miles and spend thousands of dollars to gain information about or find their victims. Stalkers many times use their intelligence to throw others off their trail.

Most stalkers don't have any relationship outside the one they are trying to re-establish or the one they have imagined exists between them and their victim. 

Because they are usually loners, stalkers become desperate to obtain this relationship.

Stalkers don't display the discomfort or anxiety that people should naturally feel in certain situations.

Normal individuals would be extremely embarrassed to be caught following other people, going through their trash looking for information about them, leaving obscene notes, and other inappropriate behavior displayed by stalkers. Stalkers, however, don't see this as inappropriate behavior, but only as a means to gain the person's love.

Stalkers often suffer from low self-esteem, and feel they must have a relationship with the victim in order to have any self worth.

Preoccupations with other people almost always involve someone with weak social skills and low self-esteem.

Few stalkers can see how their actions are hurting others.

They display other sociopathic thinking in that they cannot learn from experience, and they don't believe society's rules apply to them. Most stalkers don't think they're really threatening, intimidating, or even stalking someone else. They think they're simply trying to show the victims that they're the right one for them.  To the victims of stalking it is like a prolonged rape.

Stalkers, like rapists, want absolute control over their victims. They don't regard what they're doing as a crime, or even wrong. To them it is true love, with the exception that the victim doesn't recognize it yet. With enough persistence, stalkers believe they will eventually convince the victims of their love.

Stalkers many times have a mean streak and will become violent when frustrated.  How violent?  Often deadly.

The above traits remind us that much of stalking involves harassment and annoyance, but never forget that stalkers can also be extraordinarily dangerous.   Believing that their victims love and care for them, stalkers can become violent when frustrated in their quest for this love.

Although the majority of cases do not end in murder or grave bodily injury, enough do every year that victims should never brush aside the possibility. Victims of stalking should never take the crime lightly, no matter who the stalkers are or how close they have been emotionally.

Look carefully again at the traits below and be wary if someone seems to fit these.

Won't take no for an answer

Has an obsessive personality

Above average intelligence

No or few personal relationships

Lack of embarrassment or discomfort at actions

Low self esteem

Sociopathic thinking

Has a mean streak

Why am I being stalked?  

Stalkers can be put into a number of different categories based on the motivation of their stalking behavior. Any individual stalker may or may not fit neatly into the categories presented here. The sections that follow are intended to give stalking victims more information on the typical motivations, personality characteristics, and behaviors of different types of stalkers. Furthermore, this portion of the site gives women knowledge that they can use to prevent the negative consequences of stalking and better predict the behaviors of a stalker.

Types of Stalkers

      Rejected Stalker
      Resentful Stalker
      Predatory Stalker
      Intimacy Seeker
      Incompetent Suitor
      Erotomaniac and Morbidly Infatuated

Rejected Stalker

Motivation
(a) Begins to stalk after their partner (romantic or close friendship) has ended their relationship or indicates that he or she intends to end the relationship.
(b) Wants to be in a relationship with the victim again or seek revenge on the victim. The stalker's goals may vary, depending on the responses of the victim.

Personality
(a) May have high levels of these personality characteristics:
- narcissism
- jealousy
(b) May have:
- feelings of humiliation
- over-dependence
- poor social skills and a resulting poor social network

Stalking Behaviors
(a) Is often the most persistent and intrusive type of stalker.
(b) Is most likely to employ intimidation and assault in pursuit of their victim. A history of violence in the relationship with the partner is not uncommon.
Duration and Criminality
(a) This type of stalker is typically the most resistant to efforts aimed at ending their stalking behavior.

Resentful Stalker

Motivation
(a) Wants to frighten and distress his victim.
(b) Stalks his victim to get revenge against someone who has upset him.
(c) Views his victim as being similar to those who have oppressed and humiliated him in the past.
(d) May view himself as a victim striking back against an oppressor.

Personality
(a) Is often irrationally paranoid.

Victim Characteristics
(a) Stalks victims that may have upset him directly or are representative of a group at which he is upset.
(b) May stalk someone he knows or a complete stranger.

Stalking Behaviors
(a) Can be the most obsessive and enduring type of stalker.
(b) Is the most likely to verbally threaten his victim.
(c) Is one of the least likely to physically assault his victim.
Duration and Criminality
(a) Is likely to stop stalking if confronted with legal sanctions early on. The longer the stalking continues, the less effective legal sanctions are likely to be.

Predatory Stalker

Motivation
(a) Stalks his victim as part of a plan to attack her, usually sexually.
(b) Is motivated by the promise of sexual gratification and power over his victim.

Personality
(a) Often has poor self-esteem and is sexually deviant.
(b) Often has poor social skills, especially in romantic relationships.
(c) May have lower than normal intelligence.
Victim Characteristics
(a) May stalk someone he knows or a complete stranger.

Stalking Behaviors
(a) Usually does not harass or try to contact his victim while he is stalking her. He is unlikely to provide any kind of his plan to attack the victim.
(b) May engage in behaviors such as:
- Surveillance of the victim
- Obscene phone calls
- Exhibitionism
- Fetishism
- Voyeurism (Peeping Tom)
- Paedophilia/hebephilia
- Sexual masochism and sadism
- Paraphilic asphyxia

Duration and Criminality
(a) May stalk for a shorter period of time than other types of stalkers.
(b) Is more likely to have prior criminal convictions, most often sexual, than other types of stalkers.
(c) Has a high potential to commit sexual assault.

Intimacy Seeker

Motivation
(a) Seeks to establish an intimate, loving relationship with his victim.
(b) May believe the victim is in love with them. This is a delusion.
(c) Believes that the victim may be the only person who can satisfy their desires.
(d) Believes the victim is an ideal partner.
(e) Is not a would-be lover. He already loves the victim.
(f) May interpret any kind of response from his victim, even negative responses, as encouragement.
(g) May believe the victim owes him love because of all he has invested in stalking her.
(h) Is very resistant to changing his beliefs about his victim's love for him.

Personality
(a) Is often a shy, isolated person.
(b) Often lives alone and lacks any sort of intimate relationship in his life. He may never have had an intimate relationship.
(c) Likely to have a mental disorder such as:
- Schizophrenia
- Erotomania
- Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Victim Characteristics
(a) May stalk acquaintances or complete strangers.

Stalking Behaviors
(a) If he recognizes he is being rejected by the victim, may become threatening or violent.
(b) May engage in behaviors such as:
- Writing letters to the victim
- Calling the victim on the telephone
- Sending the victim gifts
(c) May become jealous if his victim enters or continues a romantic relationship with another man.

Duration and Criminality
(a) Is among the most persistent type of stalker, harassing longer than any type except the rejected stalker.
(b) Is usually unresponsive to legal sanctions because he views them as challenges to overcome that demonstrate his love for the victim.

Incompetent Suitor

Motivation
(a) Is motivated by a desire to start a romantic or intimate relationship with his victim.
(b) Is impaired in his social skills and courting skills.

Personality
(a) May be cut off from victim's feelings (lack of empathy) and believe that any woman should be attracted to him.
(b) May have lower than normal intelligence.

Victim Characteristics
(a) Usually stalks acquaintances, but may stalk complete strangers.

Stalking Behaviors
(a) Typically engages in behaviors such as:
- Repeatedly asking for dates, even after being rejected.
- Repeatedly calling on the phone.
- Trying to hold the victim's hand or kiss the victim.

Duration and Criminality
(a) Stalks for shorter periods, on average, than any other type of stalker.
(b) Likely to have stalked numerous others in the past.
(c) Will likely stalk numerous others in the future.
(d) Will quickly stop stalking if confronted with legal action or after seeking counseling.

Erotomaniac and Morbidly Infatuated

Motivation
(a) Believes that he is loved by the stalking victim. He believes this even though his victim has done nothing to suggest it is true, and may have made statements that she does not and never will love him.
(b) Reinterprets what his victim says and does to support his belief that she loves him.
(c) Makes the imagined romance with his victim the most important part of his life.
(d) Believes that the imagined romance will eventually become a permanent union.

Personality
(a) May suffer from one or more of the following psychological problems:
- Acute paranoia
- Delusions
(b) These psychological problems may be the result of numerous forms of mental illness, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and borderline personality disorder.

Victim Characteristics
(a) Typically chooses a victim of higher social status.

Stalking Behaviors
(a) Repeatedly tries to approach and communicate with their supposed lover.

Duration and Criminality
(a) May sometimes respond well to psychological treatment with drugs and talk therapy.
(b) Is typically unresponsive to threats of legal action or legal action short of time behind bars. Without psychological treatment, he is likely to continue stalking his victim after he is released.

Anyone can be a Victim

     Ex-Intimates
     Friends and Acquaintances
     Professional Contacts
     Workplace Contacts
     Strangers
     The Famous

Of those surveyed, 86% of Texas women report being the victim of stalking at some point during their lifetime. Nearly 15% of those women report experiencing some fear for their safety or the safety of their family as a result of their victimization. Every part of the state of Texas exhibits this pattern of the incidence of stalking. Since these figures do not include cases involving victims under the age of 18, they are likely to be substantial underestimates of the true number of women who were stalked each year in Texas.

Ex-Intimates

From Long-term Relationships
(a) Women who previously shared a romantic relationship with the stalker.
(b) Ex-intimates are the most common type of stalking victim. Seventy-one percent of Texas women who report being the victim of stalking indicate that their stalker was a current or former intimate partner.
(c) 76% were physically abused while still in the relationship with their former partner.
(e) 29% report being sexually assaulted by the stalker.
(f) Ex-intimates are likely to be between 18 and 29 when the stalking starts.
(g) Most were pursued by their stalker for at least one and a half years. Over a third were pursued for two years or more.
(h) Ex-intimates are 4 times more likely to be physically assaulted and 6 times more likely to be sexually assaulted than women who are not stalked by a former romantic partner.
(i) They are exposed to the greatest range of harassment methods, such as:
- Repeated phone calls
- Persistent following
- Threats of violence
- Actual violence
- Sexual assault
(j) Ex-intimates are subject to very persistent stalking.
(k) They are often the object of severe jealousy from the former partner who stalks them.
(l) Ex-intimates are among the most likely to seek help from law enforcement and counseling services.

From Shorter, Dating Relationships
(a) Ex-intimates are less likely to be the victim of violence if stalked by a former dating partner than if stalked by a former long-term partner.
(b) May inadvertently encourage stalking behavior by accepting dates even though they see no future in the relationship because of fear of hurting the man's feelings.
(c) If they try to end the relationship, the man will typically react in a childish, pathetic manner. This may make the victim feel guilty and lead her to agree to some kind of continuing relationship with the stalker. Again, this decision may inadvertently encourage the stalker to continue his behavior.
(d) Ex-intimates are among the most likely to seek help from law enforcement and counseling services.

Friends and Acquaintances

(a) The victim may be stalked by an intimacy seeker or an incompetent suitor motivated by a desire to start a romantic relationship with the victim.
(b) They may be stalked by a resentful stalker, typically a neighbor, who may be involved in a disagreement with the victim about something such as noise, the location of a tree, or pets.
(c) The resentful stalker's grudge may escalate to:
- personal threats
- complaints to law enforcement and local government
- property damage
- theft or killing of pets
- letters or notes on the victim's car or house
- breaking into the victim's house or apartment
- watching the victim's movements
- physically assaulting the victim
(d) The resentful stalker also may target the victim's family and friends
(e) Law enforcement involvement is difficult when the resentful stalker is a neighbor because their residence is in such close proximity to the victim.
(f) Many victims move to a different location as a way to avoid the stalker. Although this action may seem drastic, it is most often an effective solution.

Professional Contacts

(a) Typically work in helping professions such as:
- Health care providers
- Lawyers
- Teachers
(b) Professional contacts are more likely to be stalked by all the different types of stalkers.
- Stalkers are most likely to be intimacy seekers, incompetent suitors, or resentful stalkers.
- Rejected stalkers may pursue these victims after a professional therapeutic relationship is ended.
- Patients, clients, and students of these victims may also become sexually predatory.
(c) They are also likely to be sexually harassed by their male stalkers.

Workplace Contacts

(a) Stalkers may be supervisors, fellow employees, service providers, clients, or others who show up at the victim's workplace.
(b) Almost half of stalkers show up at their victim's workplace.
(c) Victims are typically stalked by resentful stalkers or rejected stalkers, but may also include intimacy seekers and incompetent suitors who target a fellow employee as the object of their affections.
(d) Stalking behaviors directed at victim may include:
- Sexual harassment
- Physical and sexual assaults
- Robberies
- Homicide
(e) The United States Justice Department found that in the U.S. between the years 1992 and 1996 over 2 million people were the victims of violent crime in the workplace.
(f) This included:
- 1.5 million assaults
- 51,000 rapes
- 84,000 robberies
- Over 1000 homicides
- Disgruntled employees, usually resentful stalkers, are responsible for most workplace homicides.
(g) They usually have a history of poor job performance, a high rate of absenteeism, and a record of threats and confrontations with people in the workplace they resent.
(h) Victims often do not tell their co-workers or supervisors about the person who is stalking them because they fear reprisals from the stalker or feel embarrassed sharing such personal information with others in the workplace. 

Strangers

(a) Are victims who are not aware of any prior contact with the stalker.
(b) Are victims who are typically of high status in their community or social group.
(c) Are most commonly stalked by intimacy seekers and incompetent suitors, but may also be stalked by sexually predatory stalkers or resentful stalkers.
- These stalkers may hide their identity from their victims at first, and reveal it after stalking their victim for some time in order to get closer to them.
- Although intimacy seekers are less likely to physically assault their victims than other types of stalkers, they are just as likely to make verbal threats.
- Victims may be initially flattered when stalker approaches them and respond politely. They may even agree to go on a date with their stalker, after his many requests.
(d) This can have the unintentional effect of encouraging the stalker, leading him to believe that the victim loves him as much as he loves her.
(e) Sexually predatory stalkers typically stalk their victims for shorter periods of time.
(f) They may perpetrate a range of acts against the victim, including:
- sexually abusive behaviors
- obscene phone calls
- rape
- sexual murder
- Resentful stalkers select a stranger as a victim because the victim is identified by the stalker as somehow representing a group that they dislike.
(g) Their goal is to intimidate and instill fear in their victims.
(h) Their stalking behaviors may include:
- destruction of the victim's property
- verbal threats
- harassing phone calls
- physical assault, although this occurs only rarely

The Famous

(a) Famous victims are prominent public figures.
(b) They are typically stalked by incompetent suitors, the erotomanic, or resentful stalkers.
(c) Famous victims may be stalked by a number of different stalkers and a number of different types of stalkers at the same time.
(d) Some of these stalkers have not had intimate relationships in their lives or may suffer from the delusion that they have a romantic relationship with their famous victim.
(e) It is uncommon for stalkers of famous people to be violent toward them.
(f) When violence does occur, it is usually because the stalker has been persistently rejected or realizes that their victim does not love them or want a relationship with them.

The Effect of Stalking on its Victims

(a) 93% of stalking victims indicate that being stalked had a significant negative impact on their personal relationships.
(b) Of those victims currently in romantic relationships, 71 % indicate that being stalked created conflict in their romantic relationships, most often reporting that their current romantic partner was jealous of or intimidated by the stalker.
(c) 63% of stalking victims reported conflict in their friendships as a result of being stalked. The conflict was most often created by victims' unwillingness to attend social events where their stalker might be present and friend's frustration because they believed the victim was not doing enough to deter their stalker.
(d) Nearly 38% of stalking victims reported losing time from school or work as a result of being stalked. Some indicated that they had changed jobs or transferred to another school to escape the always-present terror they experienced.
(e) Most stalking victims reported that they were at a loss about what they could do to end their victimization. Most of the tactics they tried seemed to make matters worse.
(f) Many of the victims reported living in perpetual fear that something might push their stalker over the edge and lead him to physically assault, sexually assault, or even murder them.

Am I being stalked?

Stalking is a frightening behavior that disrupts the lives of many women and men, and often predicts escalating violence. This section of the site will help you decide whether or not you are being stalked.

What is Stalking?

Stalking is an abnormal or long-term pattern of threat or harassment that:

(a) is directed repeatedly toward a specific individual

(b) is experienced as unwelcome or intrusive

(c) is reported to trigger fear or concern

Examples of stalking include: following, loitering nearby, maintaining surveillance, and sending unwanted gifts or messages. Stalking may escalate to physical assault, sexual assault, and/or even murder.

Legal Definition of Stalking in Texas:

Penal Code Sec. 42.072 - 1997

(a) A person commits an offense if the person, on more than one occasion and pursuant to the same scheme or course of conduct that is directed specifically at another person, knowingly engages in conduct, including following the other person, that:

(1) the actor knows or reasonably believes the other person will regard as threatening:

(A) bodily injury or death for the other person;

(B) bodily injury or death for a member of the other person's family or household; or

(C) that an offense will be committed against the other person's property;

(2) causes the other person or a member of the other person's family or household to be placed in fear of bodily injury or death or fear that an offense will be committed against the other person's property; and

(3) would cause a reasonable person to fear:

(A) bodily injury or death for himself or herself;

(B) bodily injury or death for a member of the person's family or household; or

(C) that an offense will be committed against the person's property.

(b) An offense under this section is a Class A misdemeanor, except that the offense is a felony of the third degree if the actor has previously been convicted under this section.

(c) In this section, "family," "household," and "member of a household" have the meanings assigned by Section 71.01, Family Code.

Penalty: Class A misdemeanor - $4,000 and/or up to one year in jail unless there is a prior conviction for stalking, in which case the penalty is upgraded to a 3rd degree felony (2 to 10 years in prison and a possible fine of up to $10,000).
In addition, the releasing officer is required to make a "reasonable effort" (one attempt) to get in touch with the victim when the stalker is being released or escapes from prison. It is the victim's responsibility to notify law enforcement officials of a change in the victims' phone number or address.
Added by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch 1, & 1, eff. Jan. 28, 1997. Amended by Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 62, & 15.02(e), eff. Sept. 1, 1999.

Stalking Laws in other States

How is Stalking Proven?

(a) Intent of stalker: Stalker has the intent or the knowledge that his/her actions will instill fear of death or bodily injury to the victim or a member of the victim's family or household. Threats can be explicit (e.g.-stating that he is going to kill the victim) or implied (e.g.-veiled threats, hurting the family pet). Threats have to be aimed at a specific person; they cannot be general threats. Threats may be conveyed by the stalker or by someone acting on behalf of the stalker.

(b) Conduct of stalker: Conduct has to occur on more than one occasion and be directed towards the victim and/or the victim's family or household members. More than one police report is not required. The acts may include threatening contact by mail or by phone or damaging the victim's property.

Penalty: Class A misdemeanor - $4,000 and/or up to one year in jail unless
there is a prior conviction for stalking, in which case the penalty is
upgraded to a 3rd degree felony (2 to 10 years in prison and a possible
fine of up to $10,000).

In addition the releasing officer is required to make a "reasonable effort"
(one attempt) to get in touch with the victim when the stalker is being
released or escapes from prison. It is the victim's responsibility to
notify law enforcement officials of a change in the victims' phone number
or address.

Why am I being stalked?  

Stalkers can be put into a number of different categories based on the motivation of their stalking behavior. Any individual stalker may or may not fit neatly into the categories presented here. The sections that follow are intended to give stalking victims more information on the typical motivations, personality characteristics, and behaviors of different types of stalkers. Furthermore, this portion of the site gives women knowledge that they can use to prevent the negative consequences of stalking and better predict the behaviors of a stalker.

Types of Stalkers

      Rejected Stalker
      Resentful Stalker
      Predatory Stalker
      Intimacy Seeker
      Incompetent Suitor
      Erotomaniac and Morbidly Infatuated

Rejected Stalker

Motivation
(a) Begins to stalk after their partner (romantic or close friendship) has ended their relationship or indicates that he or she intends to end the relationship.
(b) Wants to be in a relationship with the victim again or seek revenge on the victim. The stalker's goals may vary, depending on the responses of the victim.

Personality
(a) May have high levels of these personality characteristics:
- narcissism
- jealousy
(b) May have:
- feelings of humiliation
- over-dependence
- poor social skills and a resulting poor social network

Stalking Behaviors
(a) Is often the most persistent and intrusive type of stalker.
(b) Is most likely to employ intimidation and assault in pursuit of their victim. A history of violence in the relationship with the partner is not uncommon.
Duration and Criminality
(a) This type of stalker is typically the most resistant to efforts aimed at ending their stalking behavior.

Resentful Stalker

Motivation
(a) Wants to frighten and distress his victim.
(b) Stalks his victim to get revenge against someone who has upset him.
(c) Views his victim as being similar to those who have oppressed and humiliated him in the past.
(d) May view himself as a victim striking back against an oppressor.

Personality
(a) Is often irrationally paranoid.

Victim Characteristics
(a) Stalks victims that may have upset him directly or are representative of a group at which he is upset.
(b) May stalk someone he knows or a complete stranger.

Stalking Behaviors
(a) Can be the most obsessive and enduring type of stalker.
(b) Is the most likely to verbally threaten his victim.
(c) Is one of the least likely to physically assault his victim.
Duration and Criminality
(a) Is likely to stop stalking if confronted with legal sanctions early on. The longer the stalking continues, the less effective legal sanctions are likely to be.

Predatory Stalker

Motivation
(a) Stalks his victim as part of a plan to attack her, usually sexually.
(b) Is motivated by the promise of sexual gratification and power over his victim.

Personality
(a) Often has poor self-esteem and is sexually deviant.
(b) Often has poor social skills, especially in romantic relationships.
(c) May have lower than normal intelligence.
Victim Characteristics
(a) May stalk someone he knows or a complete stranger.

Stalking Behaviors
(a) Usually does not harass or try to contact his victim while he is stalking her. He is unlikely to provide any kind of his plan to attack the victim.
(b) May engage in behaviors such as:
- Surveillance of the victim
- Obscene phone calls
- Exhibitionism
- Fetishism
- Voyeurism (Peeping Tom)
- Paedophilia/hebephilia
- Sexual masochism and sadism
- Paraphilic asphyxia

Duration and Criminality
(a) May stalk for a shorter period of time than other types of stalkers.
(b) Is more likely to have prior criminal convictions, most often sexual, than other types of stalkers.
(c) Has a high potential to commit sexual assault.

Intimacy Seeker

Motivation
(a) Seeks to establish an intimate, loving relationship with his victim.
(b) May believe the victim is in love with them. This is a delusion.
(c) Believes that the victim may be the only person who can satisfy their desires.
(d) Believes the victim is an ideal partner.
(e) Is not a would-be lover. He already loves the victim.
(f) May interpret any kind of response from his victim, even negative responses, as encouragement.
(g) May believe the victim owes him love because of all he has invested in stalking her.
(h) Is very resistant to changing his beliefs about his victim's love for him.

Personality
(a) Is often a shy, isolated person.
(b) Often lives alone and lacks any sort of intimate relationship in his life. He may never have had an intimate relationship.
(c) Likely to have a mental disorder such as:
- Schizophrenia
- Erotomania
- Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Victim Characteristics
(a) May stalk acquaintances or complete strangers.

Stalking Behaviors
(a) If he recognizes he is being rejected by the victim, may become threatening or violent.
(b) May engage in behaviors such as:
- Writing letters to the victim
- Calling the victim on the telephone
- Sending the victim gifts
(c) May become jealous if his victim enters or continues a romantic relationship with another man.

Duration and Criminality
(a) Is among the most persistent type of stalker, harassing longer than any type except the rejected stalker.
(b) Is usually unresponsive to legal sanctions because he views them as challenges to overcome that demonstrate his love for the victim.

Incompetent Suitor

Motivation
(a) Is motivated by a desire to start a romantic or intimate relationship with his victim.
(b) Is impaired in his social skills and courting skills.

Personality
(a) May be cut off from victim's feelings (lack of empathy) and believe that any woman should be attracted to him.
(b) May have lower than normal intelligence.

Victim Characteristics
(a) Usually stalks acquaintances, but may stalk complete strangers.

Stalking Behaviors
(a) Typically engages in behaviors such as:
- Repeatedly asking for dates, even after being rejected.
- Repeatedly calling on the phone.
- Trying to hold the victim's hand or kiss the victim.

Duration and Criminality
(a) Stalks for shorter periods, on average, than any other type of stalker.
(b) Likely to have stalked numerous others in the past.
(c) Will likely stalk numerous others in the future.
(d) Will quickly stop stalking if confronted with legal action or after seeking counseling.

Erotomaniac and Morbidly Infatuated

Motivation
(a) Believes that he is loved by the stalking victim. He believes this even though his victim has done nothing to suggest it is true, and may have made statements that she does not and never will love him.
(b) Reinterprets what his victim says and does to support his belief that she loves him.
(c) Makes the imagined romance with his victim the most important part of his life.
(d) Believes that the imagined romance will eventually become a permanent union.

Personality
(a) May suffer from one or more of the following psychological problems:
- Acute paranoia
- Delusions
(b) These psychological problems may be the result of numerous forms of mental illness, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and borderline personality disorder.

Victim Characteristics
(a) Typically chooses a victim of higher social status.

Stalking Behaviors
(a) Repeatedly tries to approach and communicate with their supposed lover.

Duration and Criminality
(a) May sometimes respond well to psychological treatment with drugs and talk therapy.
(b) Is typically unresponsive to threats of legal action or legal action short of time behind bars. Without psychological treatment, he is likely to continue stalking his victim after he is released.

Anyone can be a Victim

     Ex-Intimates
     Friends and Acquaintances
     Professional Contacts
     Workplace Contacts
     Strangers
     The Famous
     Judges & Court & Police Officers

Of those surveyed, 86% of Texas women report being the victim of stalking at some point during their lifetime. Nearly 15% of those women report experiencing some fear for their safety or the safety of their family as a result of their victimization. Every part of the state of Texas exhibits this pattern of the incidence of stalking. Since these figures do not include cases involving victims under the age of 18, they are likely to be substantial underestimates of the true number of women who were stalked each year in Texas.

Ex-Intimates

From Long-term Relationships
(a) Women who previously shared a romantic relationship with the stalker.
(b) Ex-intimates are the most common type of stalking victim. Seventy-one percent of Texas women who report being the victim of stalking indicate that their stalker was a current or former intimate partner.
(c) 76% were physically abused while still in the relationship with their former partner.
(e) 29% report being sexually assaulted by the stalker.
(f) Ex-intimates are likely to be between 18 and 29 when the stalking starts.
(g) Most were pursued by their stalker for at least one and a half years. Over a third were pursued for two years or more.
(h) Ex-intimates are 4 times more likely to be physically assaulted and 6 times more likely to be sexually assaulted than women who are not stalked by a former romantic partner.
(i) They are exposed to the greatest range of harassment methods, such as:
- Repeated phone calls
- Persistent following
- Threats of violence
- Actual violence
- Sexual assault
(j) Ex-intimates are subject to very persistent stalking.
(k) They are often the object of severe jealousy from the former partner who stalks them.
(l) Ex-intimates are among the most likely to seek help from law enforcement and counseling services.

From Shorter, Dating Relationships
(a) Ex-intimates are less likely to be the victim of violence if stalked by a former dating partner than if stalked by a former long-term partner.
(b) May inadvertently encourage stalking behavior by accepting dates even though they see no future in the relationship because of fear of hurting the man's feelings.
(c) If they try to end the relationship, the man will typically react in a childish, pathetic manner. This may make the victim feel guilty and lead her to agree to some kind of continuing relationship with the stalker. Again, this decision may inadvertently encourage the stalker to continue his behavior.
(d) Ex-intimates are among the most likely to seek help from law enforcement and counseling services.

Friends and Acquaintances

(a) The victim may be stalked by an intimacy seeker or an incompetent suitor motivated by a desire to start a romantic relationship with the victim.
(b) They may be stalked by a resentful stalker, typically a neighbor, who may be involved in a disagreement with the victim about something such as noise, the location of a tree, or pets.
(c) The resentful stalker's grudge may escalate to:
- personal threats
- complaints to law enforcement and local government
- property damage
- theft or killing of pets
- letters or notes on the victim's car or house
- breaking into the victim's house or apartment
- watching the victim's movements
- physically assaulting the victim
(d) The resentful stalker also may target the victim's family and friends
(e) Law enforcement involvement is difficult when the resentful stalker is a neighbor because their residence is in such close proximity to the victim.
(f) Many victims move to a different location as a way to avoid the stalker. Although this action may seem drastic, it is most often an effective solution.

Professional Contacts

(a) Typically work in helping professions such as:
- Health care providers
- Lawyers
- Teachers
(b) Professional contacts are more likely to be stalked by all the different types of stalkers.
- Stalkers are most likely to be intimacy seekers, incompetent suitors, or resentful stalkers.
- Rejected stalkers may pursue these victims after a professional therapeutic relationship is ended.
- Patients, clients, and students of these victims may also become sexually predatory.
(c) They are also likely to be sexually harassed by their male stalkers.

Workplace Contacts

(a) Stalkers may be supervisors, fellow employees, service providers, clients, or others who show up at the victim's workplace.
(b) Almost half of stalkers show up at their victim's workplace.
(c) Victims are typically stalked by resentful stalkers or rejected stalkers, but may also include intimacy seekers and incompetent suitors who target a fellow employee as the object of their affections.
(d) Stalking behaviors directed at victim may include:
- Sexual harassment
- Physical and sexual assaults
- Robberies
- Homicide
(e) The United States Justice Department found that in the U.S. between the years 1992 and 1996 over 2 million people were the victims of violent crime in the workplace.
(f) This included:
- 1.5 million assaults
- 51,000 rapes
- 84,000 robberies
- Over 1000 homicides
- Disgruntled employees, usually resentful stalkers, are responsible for most workplace homicides.
(g) They usually have a history of poor job performance, a high rate of absenteeism, and a record of threats and confrontations with people in the workplace they resent.
(h) Victims often do not tell their co-workers or supervisors about the person who is stalking them because they fear reprisals from the stalker or feel embarrassed sharing such personal information with others in the workplace.

Strangers

(a) Are victims who are not aware of any prior contact with the stalker.
(b) Are victims who are typically of high status in their community or social group.
(c) Are most commonly stalked byintimacy seekers and incompetent suitors, but may also be stalked by sexually predatory stalkers or resentful stalkers.
- These stalkers may hide their identity from their victims at first, and reveal it after stalking their victim for some time in order to get closer to them.
- Although intimacy seekers are less likely to physically assault their victims than other types of stalkers, they are just as likely to make verbal threats.
- Victims may be initially flattered when stalker approaches them and respond politely. They may even agree to go on a date with their stalker, after his many requests.
(d) This can have the unintentional effect of encouraging the stalker, leading him to believe that the victim loves him as much as he loves her.
(e) Sexually predatory stalkers typically stalk their victims for shorter periods of time.
(f) They may perpetrate a range of acts against the victim, including:
- sexually abusive behaviors
- obscene phone calls
- rape
- sexual murder
- Resentful stalkers select a stranger as a victim because the victim is identified by the stalker as somehow representing a group that they dislike.
(g) Their goal is to intimidate and instill fear in their victims.
(h) Their stalking behaviors may include:
- destruction of the victim's property
- verbal threats
- harassing phone calls
- physical assault, although this occurs only rarely

The Famous

(a) Famous victims are prominent public figures.
(b) They are typically stalked by incompetent suitors, the erotomanic, or resentful stalkers.
(c) Famous victims may be stalked by a number of different stalkers and a number of different types of stalkers at the same time.
(d) Some of these stalkers have not had intimate relationships in their lives or may suffer from the delusion that they have a romantic relationship with their famous victim.
(e) It is uncommon for stalkers of famous people to be violent toward them.
(f) When violence does occur, it is usually because the stalker has been persistently rejected or realizes that their victim does not love them or want a relationship with them.

Judges & Court & Police Officers

The Effect of Stalking on its Victims

(a) 93% of stalking victims indicate that being stalked had a significant negative impact on their personal relationships.
(b) Of those victims currently in romantic relationships, 71 % indicate that being stalked created conflict in their romantic relationships, most often reporting that their current romantic partner was jealous of or intimidated by the stalker.
(c) 63% of stalking victims reported conflict in their friendships as a result of being stalked. The conflict was most often created by victims' unwillingness to attend social events where their stalker might be present and friend's frustration because they believed the victim was not doing enough to deter their stalker.
(d) Nearly 38% of stalking victims reported losing time from school or work as a result of being stalked. Some indicated that they had changed jobs or transferred to another school to escape the always-present terror they experienced.
(e) Most stalking victims reported that they were at a loss about what they could do to end their victimization. Most of the tactics they tried seemed to make matters worse.
(f) Many of the victims reported living in perpetual fear that something might push their stalker over the edge and lead him to physically assault, sexually assault, or even murder them.

What can I do?

It is the responsibility of law enforcement, the workplace, the community, and the victim to end stalking. The following sections outline some strategies that can be employed to help end stalking and its negative consequences

Strategies to end stalking

No research has systematically examined what specific strategies may work best to end stalking. It has been hypothesized that anti-stalking strategies will only be effective if they can overcome the unique motivations of a particular type of stalker. A strategy that may be effective in dealing with one type of stalker likely will not be effective in dealing with all stalkers.

What follows is a list of strategies that have been demonstrated to be effective among stalking victims across the state of Texas based on research conducted by the website's authors. In the absence of research on the topic, the stalking victim, mental health professionals, and law enforcement personnel are in the best position to make decisions about what strategies should be employed on a case by case basis. The authors of this website hope to conduct research on this topic in the coming year with continued support from the Texas Governor's Office, Criminal Justice Division.

Protect Yourself
(a) Obtain an order of protection.
(b) Do not ignore any threat. Call the police or sheriff's department.
(c) Save any record of the threat.
(d) Have quick access to critical telephone numbers and the location of safe places, such as: Police Stations, friend's houses, domestic violence shelters, etc.
(e) Consider a home security check. (Local police branches, victim support agencies, and security companies may offer this service.)
(f) Keep a packed suitcase in the car for a quick departure.
(g) Keep gas in your car and adequate money or credit cards in your wallet.
(h) Limit the distribution of your home address and phone number. Provide business contact information instead, whenever possible.
(i) Consider getting a Post Office Box for correspondence or installing a locking letter box.
(j) Make sure all personal information on letters or paperwork is destroyed before discarding it. (Stalkers may go through your trash looking for personal information.)
(k) Have your address and other contact details removed from all public records, including electoral rolls, libraries, business cards, driver's license, car registration, and medical registries.
(l) If children are involved, they should be instructed in basic safety drills. Their school should also be notified, given information about the stalker, and security arrangements should be made for them in case the stalker appears there.
(m) Keep a detailed diary of the stalkers behavior, including photographs of destroyed property, photographs of injuries inflicted by the stalker, recordings of harassing messages, license plate numbers, etc.
-Keep pen and paper easily accessible, even in the car, for this purpose.
(n) Install dead bolt locks. If you do not know where all of your keys are, change your locks immediately.
(o) If possible, install outdoor lighting, lockable windows, exterior motion sensor lights, and peepholes in doors.
-Trimming shrubbery is also recommended.
(p) Vary your routes of travel.
(q) Park in safe, well-lit areas. Always have someone escort you to and from your car.
(r) Tell your managers, co-workers, friends, and security at your business and residence about the stalker. If possible, provide them with a description and photograph. Ask them to alert you in advance about the stalker's presence and call the police, if appropriate.
(s) Purchase a mobile phone for emergencies.
(t) Use an unlisted home phone number and acquire caller-ID.
(u) Do not change your phone number. A stalker may view this as a new challenge to overcome in order to be with you, feeding their false beliefs. Instead, purchase an answering machine and ask a same-gender friend to record the message (so as not to provoke a stalker who mistakenly perceives competition).
(w) Take self-defense training classes.
(x) File police reports of any illegal behavior perpetrated by the stalker.

Diffuse the unique motivations of the stalker
(a) Make it completely clear that a relationship is not wanted now or in the future.
-Say this only once.
-Use plain language.
-Try not to be emotional.
-Avoid using threatening or humiliating language.
-You may want to rehearse with a friend before speaking with the stalker.
(b) Do not engage in further discussions with the stalker.
-Do not argue with them.
-Do not negotiate with them.
-Ongoing communication will reward the stalker and lead him to maintain contact.

Be careful not to unintentionally encourage the stalker
(a) Never initiate contact with the stalker. They may misperceive this to indicate that you are interested in them.
(b) Statements like, "I'm sorry, but I'm just not interested in a relationship at the moment," or "I'm too busy for this right now," may imply that you could be interested in a relationship some time in the future.
(c) Statements like, "I already have a boyfriend," may be interpreted as "I'd go out with you but for my boyfriend."
(d) Do not let them down easy by delivering your rejection in installments. This will only needlessly prolong the relationship. This may give the stalker hope or give his obsession with you time to grow.
(e) Do not return unsolicited letters of gifts. This may prove to the stalker that he is connecting with you.

Protective Orders

(a) A protective order is a civil court order issued to prevent continuing acts of family violence. Family include blood relative or relatives by marriage.
(b) A protective order may prohibit the offender from:
-committing further acts of family violence
-harassing or threatening the victim, either directly or indirectly by communicating the threat through another person
-going to or near a school or day-care center that a chile protected under the order attends
(c) You can apply for a protective order through:
-a district or county attorney
-a private attorney
-a legal aid service program
(d) Protective orders will go into effect no later than 14 days after an application is filed. If a court finds that there is a clear and present danger of family violence, the court may immediately issue a temporary ex parte order. The temporary order is valid for up to 20 days. The final order is effective for up to one year.

If a person violates a protective order and law enforcement is notified, officials will arrest the offender. The offender may be fined, sentenced to jail time, or both.
A protective order may be filed by:
-an adult member of the family or household
-any adult for the protection of a child
-a prosecuting attorney
-the Department of Human Regulatory Services
(e) Magistrate's Order for Emergency Protection: it may be issued at the time of a defendant's appearance before a magistrate after arrest for an offense involving family violence or sexual assault. It may be issued by the magistrate or on the request of:
-the victim
-a guardian of the victim
-a peace officer
-an attorney representing the state

This order prohibits the arrested offender from committing any further acts of family violence, communicating with a member of the family or household named in the order, or making any threats or going near the place of employment, household or business of a member of the household.
The victim does not have to be in court when the order is issued.
Violation of the order may result in a fine, jail time, or both.

Stalking help Links Are Below

United States
Are You Being Stalked? Tips For Protection
Antistalking.com
CyberAngels
End Stalking in America
Lovemenot.org
National Center for Victims of Crime - Cyberstalking
Oregon Department of Human Services - Stalking
Stalkingbehavior.com
Stalking Victims Information Resource Page
Stalking Victims Sanctuary
Survivors of Stalking

International Links
Australian Cyberstalking Help
BBC - Stalking
Germany - stopstalking.de
Italy - Lo stalking

If you have a stalking related link, please contact us so that we may add it.
(No advertisements, or solicitations please.)

Contact Us  

Unfortunately, we do not have the resources to provide counseling, referrals, or other victim services. Please refer to the Victim Services page for information about who you can contact for help.

Email: westlawbooks@yahoo.com

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Stalking

Rev. Code Wash. (ARCW) § 9A.46.110. (2008) Stalking

(1)   A person commits the crime of stalking if, without lawful authority and under circumstances not amounting to a felony attempt of another crime:

(a)  He or she intentionally and repeatedly harasses or repeatedly follows another person; and

(b)  The person being harassed or followed is placed in fear that the stalker intends to injure the person, another person, or property of the person or of another person. The feeling of fear must be one that a reasonable person in the same situation would experience under all the circumstances; and

(c)   The stalker either:

(i)      Intends to frighten, intimidate, or harass the person; or

(ii)      Knows or reasonably should know that the person is afraid, intimidated, or harassed even if the stalker did not intend to place the person in fear or intimidate or harass the person.

(2)   (a) It is not a defense to the crime of stalking under subsection (1)(c)(i) of this section that the stalker was not given actual notice that the person did not want the stalker to contact or follow the person; and
(b) It is not a defense to the crime of stalking under subsection (1)(c)(ii) of this section that the stalker did not intend to frighten, intimidate, or harass the person.

(3)    It shall be a defense to the crime of stalking that the defendant is a licensed private investigator acting within the capacity of his or her license as provided by chapter 18.165 RCW.

(4)   Attempts to contact or follow the person after being given actual notice that the person does not want to be contacted or followed constitutes prima facie evidence that the stalker intends to intimidate or harass the person. "Contact" includes, in addition to any other form of contact or communication, the sending of an electronic communication to the person.

(5)   (a) Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, a person who stalks another person is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
(b) A person who stalks another is guilty of a class C felony if any of the following applies: (i) The stalker has previously been convicted in this state or any other state of any crime of harassment, as defined in RCW 9A.46.060, of the same victim or members of the victim's family or household or any person specifically named in a protective order; (ii) the stalking violates any protective order protecting the person being stalked; (iii) the stalker has previously been convicted of a gross misdemeanor or felony stalking offense under this section for stalking another person; (iv) the stalker was armed with a deadly weapon, as defined in RCW 9.94A.602, while stalking the person; (v)(A) the stalker's victim is or was a law enforcement officer; judge; juror; attorney; victim advocate; legislator; community corrections' officer;

an employee, contract staff person, or volunteer of a correctional agency; or an employee of the child protective, child welfare, or adult protective services division within the department of social and health services; and (B) the stalker stalked the victim to retaliate against the victim for an act the victim performed during the course of official duties or to influence the victim's performance of official duties; or (vi) the stalker's victim is a current, former, or prospective witness in an adjudicative proceeding, and the stalker stalked the victim to retaliate against the victim as a result of the victim's testimony or potential testimony.

(6)    As used in this section:

(a)  "Correctional agency" means a person working for the department of natural resources in a correctional setting or any state, county, or municipally operated agency with the authority to direct the release of a person serving a sentence or term of confinement and includes but is not limited to the department of corrections, the indeterminate sentence review board, and the department of social and health services.

(b)  "Follows" means deliberately maintaining visual or physical proximity to a specific person over a period of time. A finding that the alleged stalker repeatedly and deliberately appears at the person's home, school, place of employment, business, or any other location to maintain visual or physical proximity to the person is sufficient to find that the alleged stalker follows the person. It is not necessary to establish that the alleged stalker follows the person while in transit from one location to another.

(c)  "Harasses" means unlawful harassment as defined in RCW 10.14.020.

(d)  "Protective order" means any temporary or permanent court order prohibiting or limiting violence against, harassment of, contact or communication with, or physical proximity to another person.

(e)  "Repeatedly" means on two or more separate occasions.

Harassment

Rev. Code Wash. § 9A.46.020. Definition -- Penalties. 1985. Amended 2003.

(1) A person is guilty of harassment if:

(a) Without lawful authority, the person knowingly threatens:

  (i) To cause bodily injury immediately or in the future to the person threatened or to any other person; or

  (ii) To cause physical damage to the property of a person other than the actor; or

  (iii) To subject the person threatened or any other person to physical confinement or restraint; or

  (iv) Maliciously to do any other act which is intended to substantially harm the person threatened or another with respect to his or her physical or mental health or safety; and

(b) The person by words or conduct places the person threatened in reasonable fear that the threat will be carried out. "Words or conduct" includes, in addition to any other form of communication or conduct, the sending of an electronic communication.

(2) (a) Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, a person who harasses another is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
(b) A person who harasses another is guilty of a class C felony if either of the following applies: (i) The person has previously been convicted in this or any other state of any crime of harassment, as defined in RCW 9A.46.060, of the same victim or members of the victim's family or household or any person specifically named in a no-contact or no-harassment order; or (ii) the person harasses another person under subsection (1)(a)(i) of this section by threatening to kill the person threatened or any other person.

(3) The penalties provided in this section for harassment do not preclude the victim from seeking any other remedy otherwise available under law.

Cyberstalking

Rev. CodeWash. § 9.61.260. Cyberstalking.  2004.  

(1) A person is guilty of cyberstalking if he or she, with intent to harass, intimidate, torment, or embarrass any other person, and under circumstances not constituting telephone harassment, makes an electronic communication to such other person or a third party:

(a)  Using any lewd, lascivious, indecent, or obscene words, images, or language, or suggesting the commission of any lewd or lascivious act;

(b) Anonymously or repeatedly whether or not conversation occurs; or

(c) Threatening to inflict injury on the person or property of the person called or any member of his or her family or household.

(2) Cyberstalking is a gross misdemeanor, except as provided in subsection (3) of this section.

(3) Cyberstalking is a class C felony if either of the following applies:

(a) The perpetrator has previously been convicted of the crime of harassment, as defined in RCW 9A.46.060, with the same victim or a member of the victim's family or household or any person specifically named in a no-contact order or no-harassment order in this or any other state; or

(b) The perpetrator engages in the behavior prohibited under subsection (1)(c) of this section by threatening to kill the person threatened or any other person.

(4) Any offense committed under this section may be deemed to have been committed either at the place from which the communication was made or at the place where the communication was received.

(5) For purposes of this section, "electronic communication" means the transmission of information by wire, radio, optical cable, electromagnetic, or other similar means. "Electronic communication" includes, but is not limited to, electronic mail, internet-based communications, pager service, and electronic text messaging.

Telephone Harassment

Rev. Code Wash. § 9.61.230. Telephone Harassment. 1967. Amended 2003.

(1)  Every person who, with intent to harass, intimidate, torment or embarrass any other person, shall make a telephone call to such other person:

(a)  Using any lewd, lascivious, profane, indecent, or obscene words or language, or suggesting the commission of any lewd or lascivious act; or

(b)  Anonymously or repeatedly or at an extremely inconvenient hour, whether or not conversation ensues; or

(c)  Threatening to inflict injury on the person or property of the person called or any member of his or her family or household; is guilty of a gross misdemeanor, except as provided in subsection (2) of this section.

(2)  The person is guilty of a class C felony punishable according to chapter 9A.20 RCW if either of the following applies:

(a)  That person has previously been convicted of any crime of harassment, as defined in RCW 9A.46.060, with the same victim or member of the victim's family or household or any person specifically named in a no-contact or no-harassment order in this or any other state; or

(b)  That person harasses another person under subsection (1)(c) of this section by threatening to kill the person threatened or any other person.

Definitions

Rev. Code Wash. § 10.14.020. Definitions.  1987.  Amended 2001.  
Unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter."Unlawful harassment" means a knowing and willful course of conduct directed at a specific person which seriously alarms, annoys, harasses, or is detrimental to such person, and which serves no legitimate or lawful purpose. The course of conduct shall be such as would cause a reasonable person to suffer substantial emotional distress, and shall actually cause substantial emotional distress to the petitioner, or, when the course of conduct would cause a reasonable parent to fear for the well-being of their child."Course of conduct" means a pattern of conduct composed of a series of acts over a period of time, however short, evidencing a continuity of purpose. "Course of conduct" includes, in addition to any other form of communication, contact, or conduct, the sending of an electronic communication. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of "course of conduct."

For Victim Assistance, please call 1-800-FYI-CALL, M-F 8:30 AM - 8:30 PM EST,
or e-mail gethelp@ncvc.org .

This project is supported by a grant awarded by the Office on Violence Against Women , US Department of Justice. Points of view in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the US Department of Justice.

Stalking is a pattern of repeated and unwanted attention, harassment, contact, or any other course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to feel fear.Stalking can include:Repeated, unwanted, intrusive, and frightening communications from the perpetrator by phone, mail, and/or email.

Repeatedly leaving or sending victim unwanted items, presents, or flowers.

Following or laying in wait for the victim at places such as home, school, work, or recreation place.

Making direct or indirect threats to harm the victim, the victim's children, relatives, friends, or pets.

Damaging or threatening to damage the victim's property.

Harassing victim through the internet.

Posting information or spreading rumors about the victim on the internet, in a public place, or by word of mouth.

Obtaining personal information about the victim by accessing public records, using internet search services, hiring private investigators, going through the victim's garbage, following the victim, contacting victim's friends, family work, or neighbors, etc.

Source: Stalking Resource Center, National Center for Victims of Crime



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