, , , , , , , ,
 
Westlaw Books Welcome
Citizens Court Watch !
Sovereign Unalienable Info.
Important Court Cases
Real Court Case's Now
Guestbook Sign In Log !
5 Disclaimer and Fair Use
Bad Judges And Courts !
Court System How Works
Radical Reference Info.
Words & Law Glossary !
Z Misc Information Etc.
42 USC 1983 A Lawsuits
5000 New Police Jobs ?
A Bomb 66 Yrs Later Info.
A Letter To NBA Owners
Abortion Facts And Info.
Abuse Of Court Powers
Accident/Hit and Run Etc.
Adopt A Kitten or Dog ?
Advanced Trial Handbook
Against Seizing Children
Aggravated Assault Etc.
Aiding & Abetting Info.
Aiding & Accessory Info.
Alcohol Crimes (DUI) Etc
Alcohol Crimes (DWI) Etc
Alcohol Getting Help Info.
Alienation Of Affection
Amerasian Children Info.
American Express Refund
Animal Cruelty & Rights
Apartment Rental Scams
Anamorphosis Pics Info.
Arrest Is It Legal Arrest ?
Arson and Fires Laws Info.
Assault and Battery Etc.
Asylum Canada’s  System
Attempt Crimes Laws Etc.
Attorney Client Privilege
Background Checks Info
Bankruptcy Options Info.
Beatings By Officers Info.
Bicycle Laws & Info. Etc.
Bigamy & Polygamy Laws
Bill Of Rights & Other ?
Bivens Action Lawsuits
Black Kittycat Law Books
Black Mail & How To Stop
Body of Missing People's
Breast Cancer Help Info.
 Brutality Excessive Force
Bribery Laws & Info. Etc.
Burglary Laws Info. Etc.
Cannibalism In The World
Case Numbering System
Censorship Rules Info. Etc.
Child Abandonment Etc.
Child Abuse Laws Info.
Children's Internet Act
Child Pornography Etc.
Child Support Laws Info.
Chinn, C. Bradley Bad J.
Christmas Peace Wish !
Citizens Court Watch !
Civil Forfeiture Laws Info.
Civil Rights Overview ?
Civil Rights Warning Etc.
Clear & Present Danger
Cohabitation Laws & Info.
Color of Law Abuses Etc.
Collateral Estoppel Info.
Common Law Info. Etc.
Complaints & Canons Etc.
Computer Crime &  Info.
Consortium, Loss Of Info.
Conspiracy Crime Info.
Constitution & Its Laws
Constitutional Law Info.
Contempt of Court Info.
Contempt of Cop Info.
Convicted Sex Offender
Cops Pulling You Over 4 ?
Copyright Patent Trade
Court System How Works
Court Forced Labor Info.
Couches 4 Rent Sex Info
Cozza, Salvatore  F. Bad
Credit / Debit Card Fraud
Credit 4 Time Served ?
Crimes A-Z Get Help Now
Crimes Against Justice ?
Crimes Against A Person
Criminal Contempt Court
Criminal Investigations
Civil Contempt of Court
Crimes Against Children
Criminal Rights Violations
Cyber Bullying Info. Etc.
Cyber Crimes Laws & Info.
Date Rape Info.Sex Etc.
Dating Black Mail Info.
Dating and Sex Info. Etc.
Death and Dying Info.
Death Penalty Laws Info.
Defamation Libel Slander
Deflowered by Police Info.
Dim Witted Persons Etc.
Disability Rights & Laws
Disorderly Conduct Etc.
Disturbing the Peace Etc.
Do Not Call 911 Info. ?
Do Not Call 911 Dot Com
Dog and Animal Abuse
Dog/Animal Bites & Info.
D.V. & Animal Abuse Etc.
Domestic Violence Etc.
Double Jeopardy Laws
Drinking Water Safety ?
Driver New Pay By Miles
 D.V. Consortium Info. !
Drug Charges & Info.
Drug Cultivation Etc.
Drug Distribution Etc.
Drugs Getting Help Info.
Drug Manufacturing Etc.
Drug Possession Etc.
Drug Trafficking Etc.
DSHS & APS & Get Help
DUI and DWI Laws Etc.
DUI & DWI After Arrest ?
E Bay & Craiglist Scams
E-Books Copyright Laws
Embezzlement Info. Etc.
Emergency Help Info.
Emergency Fire 911 Info.
Essays and Speeches
Expungement Laws Info.
Extortion Laws & Info.
Exemption From Laws
Exercise Your Rights Now.
False Advertising Laws
False Arrest Laws & Info
Feeding Homless Laws
Federal U.S Code & Laws
Federalism & Laws Info.
Feminism Laws & Info.
First Corinthians 7 Info.
First Date's Is It Safe ?
Fleecing of America !
Food Poisoning Info. Etc
Forgery Laws & Info. Etc.
Forced Guardianship Info.
Forced Labor & Its Laws
Forced Marriage Laws
Foster Care Laws & Info.
Fracking Regulations
Fraud Laws & Info. Etc.
Freedom Of Press Info.
Freedom of Speech Etc.
Friends Civil Rights Laws
Friend Of Court Brief
Funny To Scare Horses
Gangs Laws & Other Info.
Gang Rape Woman Laws
Gay Marriage Rights Etc.
Going Postal Get Help !
Glossary of Terms/ Words
Gonzaga Law School Etc
Good Samaritan Backfires
Grant Programs Info.
Guardian Ad Litem Info.
Guardianship Laws Info.
Guide To  File a Lawsuit
Gun Control Laws Etc.
Gun Rights In 4  U.S.A.
Guns Safety How To Info.
Habeas Corpus Laws Etc.
Harassment Laws & Info.
Hate Crimes Laws & Info.
Hearsay Evidence Case
Homeless Programs Etc.
Homicide Laws &  Info.
How To Bypass The Laws
How To Cook Babys Info
How To File a Lawsuit !
How to Self-Publish Book
How To Sue A Judge !
How The Courts Work
How The Courts Work ?
Human Trafficking Laws
Husband and Wife Laws
Hustler Mag v. Falwell
Identity Theft Info. Etc.
Indecent Exposure Etc.
Info. & Deaths Spokane
Injunction Rules & Laws
Insanity Defense Laws
Insurance Fraud Etc.
Intellectual Property Etc.
Intelligence Agency ?
Internet Laws Public Etc.
Internet Security Center
IRA Inheritance Laws
Jaywalking Laws & Info.
Judical Conduct (CJC)
Judical Immunity Rules
Judical Lawsuits Case's
Judicial / Legal Corruption
Judicaial Misconduct Info.
Judical Picnic 9/11 Ethics
Judicial Review & Laws
Judicial Trust Fund Info.
Jurisdiction Laws & Info.
Jurisprudence & Laws
Jury Duty Welcome Info.
Juvenile Law & Info.
Kidnapping Laws & Info.
Law Enforcement  Powers
Laws Suits Filling Info.
Lawyer Discipline Info. !
Layman Law Firm PLLP
Layman Bible Laws Etc.
Legal Research Internet
Life at Conception Act
Lithium Batteries Danger
Loan Pay Off How To
Magna Charta 1215  Text
Magna Carta Legal Info.
Mail Fraud & Scams
Mail Order Brides Info.
Mandatory Reporters Etc.
Manslaughter Involuntary
Manslaughter Voluntary
Marijuana & Cannabis Laws
Marital Rape Is A Crime ?
Medical Marijuana Info.
Mental State/ Defendant
MerryHallowThanksMas !
Millennials Generation Y
Minor in Possession (MIP)
Miranda Rights Warnings
Miranda v. Arizona ?
Misc Facts & Info. Etc.
Misc Files & Laws & Info.
Money Laundering Etc.
Mormon Polygamy Info.
Most Important Info. Etc.
Motorcycle Accidents Etc.
Murder First Degree Etc.
Murder Second Degree Etc.
My Constitutional R. Watch
Naked Children Laws
National Debt Figures US
No Contact Orders Info.
O'Connor, Kathleen M. B
Obscenity Laws & Info.
Open Container Law Etc.
Other Pink Thing ! 1973
Other White Meat/ Baby
Panhandler Ordinance
Pay Pal and Misc Scams
Pedestrian Accidents Etc.
Perjury In Court & Info.
Permanent Injunction Law
Pet Adopt & Laws Info.
Photography is Not Crime
Pharmaceutical Viagra !
Plea Bargains Laws/Info.
Pledge of Allegiance Etc.
Police Brutality &  Force
Police Crimes Info. Etc.
POLICE, FBI, CIA Info.
Police Misconduct & Info.
Police Misc Photo Files
Polyamory Dating Rules
Polyamory Relationship
Pornography Laws Info.
Premarital Agreements
Premarital Questions
Probable Cause Arrest ?
Probation Violation Info.
Process of Arrest Info.
Pornography Charges
Prisoner's Right's Info.
Property Crimes & Info.
Pro Se Litigant Info.
Pro-Se Rights Case Law
Pro-Se & Self-Help Info.
Prostitution Free/ Money
Publication Private Facts
Public Intoxication Info.
Pyramid Schemes Etc.
Racketeering/ RICO Etc.
Rape Of  Men & Women
Rapist and Sex Offenders
Red Light Cam. Tickets
ReElect Nobody Info.
Rental Deposit Fees Laws
Resisting Arrest Info.
Respect ALL Religions
Restoring Gun Rights
Retaliation After Crimes
Retaliation By Judges
Revenge Court Case's
Right to Counsel Laws
Robbery Crimes Etc.
Rockwood, Virginia B. Bad
Rules of Evidence & Info.
Rules of Evidence Etc.
Safe Haven Laws & Info.
Same Sex Marriage Info.
Scuba Diving Rapist Info
Scam's & Frauds Elderly
Search and Seizure Laws
Search Warrant Info. Etc.
Search Engines Helper
Search Engine Optimization
Secret Canon 3/2 Info.
Securities Fraud & Info.
Self Defence Laws Info.
Separation Agreement !
Seat Belt Laws & Info.
Sex Offender Registry
Sex & Am I Ready For ?
Sex Slave For Sale Ads
Sexual Abstinence Info.
Sexual Assault Laws Etc.
Sexual Orientation Info.
Sexual Predator Laws
Sex Crimes Laws & Info.
Sex Offenses & Laws
Sex Slave's For Sale Ads
Sexting Laws & Info. Etc.
Sexual Exploitation Info.
Sexual Slavery ? Laws
Shooting On Dick Spokane
Shoplifting Laws & Info.
Shower Safe & New Laws
Sit & Lie Down Ordinance
SLAPP Statutes & Laws
Smoking Getting Help Info.
Sodomy & Gay Info.  Laws
Solicitation Laws & Info.
Someone Drugged ME !
Speech Ban For Life ?
Spokane City Facts or ?
Spokane Code Enforcement
Spokane Dead Body Pics
Spokane Do Not Visit ?
Spokane Fire Dept. Bad
Spokane Internal Affairs
Spokane Local Killings
Spokane Marijuana Stores
Spokane Ombudsman Pr
Spokane Police Guild Bad
Spokane Police Very Bad
Spokane Prostitution Info.
Spokane Fireman Sex ?
Spokane Sex Clubs Info.
Spokane Stalker WoW
Spokane Unidentified Bodys
Standing Rules & Laws
Starting a Business Info.
Starting a New Website ?
Stalking & Forms of It ?
Stalkers + Traits of ?
Statute Of Limitations
Statutory Rape Laws Etc.
STD's & Other Diseases
Donald Sterling v NBA
Substantive Due Process
Sueing for Discrimination
Sue Without A Lawyer
Suing A Judges In Court
Suicide Get Help Now !
Support for Hitler USA
Supremacy Clause Info.
Surf The Web Safely Etc.
Tattoos and Branding !
Tax Evasion Laws Etc.
Telemarketing Scams Etc.
Terminology In The Laws
Theft / Larceny Info. Etc.
Traffic Laws & Tickets ?
Traffic Stops & Rights Info.
Transgender Bathroom Laws
Transgender People Info.
Transient Shelter Laws
Transvestite Laws & Info.
Trial Rights & Laws Etc.
Trust Laws & Court Rules
Unauthorized Practice Law
United Nations Laws Etc.
United States Constitution
U. S. Constitution Laws
U.S. Constitutional Law
Unlawful Vehicle Mod.
Vaccine & Vaccination
Vagrancy Laws & Info.
Valentines Day Stalker !
Vandalism Laws & Info.
Vehicle Searches & Info.
Violent Crime Control Act
Wa. State Constitution
Waiting for Rights Etc.
Wedding Day 11 12 13 14
We The People Laws
White Collar Crime & Info.
White House Laws/ Bills
White, Richard B. Bad J.
Woman Raped By Law
Wire Fraud Laws Etc.
Yes We The People Info.
Yin and Yang Philosophy
Z  Words &  Glossary !
STILL WORKING ONE
STILL WORKING THREE
STILL WORKING  EIGHT
 
   
 


Justice demands that an accused criminal be given the right of "habeas corpus," the ability to challenge the legality of his detention, but this right is being steadily eroded. Rogue public officials consolidating a police state dispatch jack-booted thugs to arrest dissidents. Their victims defend themselves with firearms. Those who are captured are branded "enemy combatants," and held indefinitely, incommunicado, without any specific charges brought against them, with no access to an attorney or hope of a fair trial. A scenario from Stalin's Russia, contemporary Communist China, or some Third World dictatorship? That, surely. But it could also happen here, in the not-so-distant future.
Too many individuals already in high public office, or who aspire to it, would eagerly embrace a direct route to "social control" by removing or punishing refractory individuals without such bothersome legal technicalities as indictments and trials by jury. Look to the case in April at the FLDS ranch in Texas where nearly 500 children were forcibly taken from their weeping parents with only a court order, not a warrant.

What stands in the way of these budding tyrants? As of now, one main obstacle: habeas corpus — which requires that a detained person be brought before a court to decide the legality of the detention or imprisonment. The first constitutional defense should be "We the People" ourselves, through "the Militia of the several States," which the Second Amendment declares are "necessary to the security of a free State." But today, fully constitutional militia are not in place in any state. Available right now — although under attack — is "the Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus" in Article I, Section 9, Clause 2. This "Privilege" — which modern Americans would denote a "fundamental individual right" — is the only one the original Constitution (before the Bill of Rights) defines. So its critical importance cannot be gainsaid. (In Article IV, Section 2, the original Constitution also refers to the "Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States," but does not define any of them.) Like the once-strong protections formerly provided by state militia, the protections prevailing because of habeas corpus are being eroded toward nullification.

Importance of Habeas Corpus

"The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus" derives from Article 39 of the Magna Carta in 1215, that "No free man shall be taken or imprisoned ... except by the legal judgment of his peers or by the law of the land." The Magna Carta, however, promulgated no process to enforce this principle. Slowly, though, procedures emerged. First, the writ was invoked to compel defendants to appear in civil actions and criminal prosecutions, and jurors to attend to their duties, in the king's courts. By the 1500s, common-law courts employed the writ to release prisoners being unlawfully detained under color of some other authority. And by the 1600s, expansion of the writ came to be understood as necessary to check abuses of the king's royal prerogative itself.

Standing in the way was the traditional limitation that the writ could not issue in the face of the king's command that a prisoner be detained, even with no reason stated. Thus, in 1627, King Charles I imprisoned several men who had refused to lend him money. Confronted with a warrant signed by the king's attorney general, pliant judges in the Court of King's Bench dismissed the prisoners' petition. An outraged House of Commons responded in 1628 with the Petition of Right, which decreed that "no freeman in any such manner" shall "be imprisoned or detained." In 1640, Parliament authorized the writ to challenge imprisonment under color of a warrant from the king or his Privy Council. Finally, in 1679, Parliament passed the Habeas Corpus Act, which set out definitive procedures for issuing the writ.

The political goad for the Habeas Corpus Act can perhaps be assigned to the high-handedness of King Charles II's henchman, Lord Clarendon, who had been impeached in 1667 for (among other charges) having "advised and procured divers of his majesty's subjects to be imprisoned against law in remote islands, garrisons, and other places, thereby to prevent them from the benefit of the law [of habeas corpus], and to produce precedents for the imprisoning of any other of his majesty's subjects in like manner." The act reached every individual "committed or detained ... for any crime." When imprisonment rested on a charge of felony or high treason, the act required that prosecution be brought by the next term of court, or the prisoner released on bail. And if prosecution was not thereafter brought, the prisoner was to be "discharged." In addition, the act prohibited the practice of detaining individuals overseas in order to frustrate the courts from issuing the writ.

King James II attempted to circumvent the Habeas Corpus Act by having his judges demand that prisoners post exorbitant bail as a condition of release. In 1689, Parliament responded with the English Bill of Rights, outlawing excessive bail.

Although the Habeas Corpus Act lacked direct application in the American Colonies, colonial courts granted the writ according to common-law principles because Americans asserted the privilege as one of "the rights of Englishmen" to which they were entitled. Along with Alexander Hamilton in The Federalist, No. 84, colonial Americans agreed with Sir William Blackstone, the leading legal commentator of that era, that habeas corpus was a bulwark of the British constitution. In his Commentaries on the Laws of England, Blackstone explained that

by ... the habeas corpus act, the methods of obtaining this writ are so plainly pointed out and enforced, that, so long as this statute remains unimpeached, no subject of England can long be detained in prison, except in those cases in which the law requires and justifies such detainer....

Of great importance to the public is the preservation of this personal liberty: for if once it were left in the power of any, the highest, magistrate to imprison arbitrarily whomever he or his officers thought proper,... there would soon be an end of all other rights and immunities. Some have thought, that unjust attacks, even upon life, or property, at the arbitrary will of the magistrate, are less dangerous to the commonwealth, than such as are made upon the personal liberty of the subject. To bereave a man of life, or by violence to confiscate his estate, without accusation or trial, would be so gross and notorious an act of despotism, as must at once convey the alarm of tyranny throughout the whole kingdom. But confinement of the person, by secretly hurrying him to gaol, where his sufferings are unknown or forgotten, is a less public, a less striking, and therefore a more dangerous engine of arbitrary government. And yet sometimes, when the state is in real danger, even this may be a necessary measure. But the happiness of our constitution is, that it is not left to the executive power to determine when the danger of the state is so great, as to render this measure expedient. For the parliament only, or legislative power, whenever it sees proper, can authorize the crown, by suspending the habeas corpus act for a short and limited time, to imprison suspected persons without giving any reason for so doing. As the Senate of Rome was wont to have recourse to a dictator, a magistrate of absolute authority, when they judged the republic in any imminent danger.... In like manner this experiment ought only to be tried in cases of extreme emergency; and in these the nation parts with it's [sic] liberty for a while, in order to preserve it for ever.Not surprisingly, then, upon independence "We the People" secured the writ in Article I, Section 9, Clause 2 of the Constitution: "The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it." Going beyond Blackstone, the Founders recognized that, to avoid dictatorship, not only must the power of suspending the privilege be lodged in the legislature, but also the conditions for suspension must be defined in a supreme law that circumscribes the legislature's authority. Thus, under the Constitution, Congress may enact a statute that suspends the privilege, and the president may execute that statute by detaining individuals, but the judiciary will ultimately determine whether to grant or deny the writ, based on the statute's constitutionality.


Habeas Corpus Extends How Far?

The purpose of the writ of habeas corpus is to require public officials to prove the legal basis for depriving an individual of his liberty.

The privilege of seeking the writ is not limited to particular classes of individuals. Even in pre-constitutional British law, it attached to aliens — including enemy aliens — as well as to citizens. And even to slaves, whom most legal theorists of that era believed to enjoy next to no fundamental rights at all, being treated as a species of "property."

The writ also reaches prisoners in places over which, although situated in foreign lands, the United States exercises control, or where officials or agents of the General Government are the actual jailers. This is because officials or agents of the General Government cannot detain anyone anywhere, except insofar as some law of the United States so authorizes them. And they cannot act in any way that the Constitution prohibits, for example by denying even aliens inhabiting territories under the control of the United States "guarantees of certain fundamental rights declared in the Constitution." Balzac v. Porto Rico, 258 U.S. 298, 312 (1922). See also Murphy v. Ramsey, 114 U.S. 15, 44 (1885), which correctly concluded that the powers of the United States are not "absolute and unlimited" when exercised in foreign territory, but are always "subject to such restrictions as are expressed in the Constitution." Otherwise, simply by making deals with corrupt foreign rulers, rogue American public officials could operate in overseas enclaves uncontrolled by the Constitution!

Founders' Safeguards

A court hearing a petition for a writ of habeas corpus does not rule on the innocence or guilt of the individual in custody, but only on the custodian's authority to detain him. Absent such authority, the prisoner must be released.

Congress has the power to promulgate standards and procedures for invoking the privilege, under its authority: (i) "To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court," and by necessary inference the jurisdiction of such "Tribunals" (Article I, Section 8, Clause 9); (ii) to make "Regulations" with respect to the "appellate Jurisdiction" of the Supreme Court (Article III, Section 2, Clause 2); and (iii) "To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper" for these purposes (Article I, Section 8, Clause 18). And it has a duty to do so, as well — because Congress' neglect, failure, or refusal to render the Constitution's guarantee of the writ meaningful would amount to a tacit suspension of it.

Whatever comports, in terms of comprehensiveness, reliability, and fairness, with the common-law procedures American courts employed in the late 1700s should pass muster today. Nonetheless, these historic processes are only "the absolute minimum." INS v. St. Cyr, 533 U.S. 289, 301 (2001). Therefore Congress may expand on them, to the benefit of persons seeking the writ.

Exercising the powers catalogued above, Congress may suspend the privilege, but only "when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it." So suspension requires not only a bare statute, but also circumstances that meet the constitutional criteria. Congress has considered these requirements satisfied in few instances.

In contrast to the General Government, the states are not limited by the Constitution in their authority to suspend the privilege within their own courts — so any limitation on that power must be found in their own constitutions and laws. See Gasquet v. Lapeyre, 242 U.S. 367, 369 (1917).

A suspension of the privilege entails nothing more: the writ is not suspended, only the privilege of obtaining it if the suspension is valid. Thus, the court in which a prisoner asserts the privilege must determine whether Congress has enacted a suspension, whether the applicant falls within the statute's terms, and whether the statute is constitutional. See Ex Parte Milligan, 71 U.S. (4 Wallace) 2, 130-131 (1866).

Supreme Nullification

Unfortunately, we are now living in an era of the warfare-welfare state and the Leader Principle, which defines "patriotism" as blindly following the leader's orders, regardless of the morality or constitutionality of his commands. In the turbulent wake of 9/11, political pressures brigaded with public hysteria generated by propagandists for "the war on terror" are being employed to narrow the scope of "The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus." The Supreme Court's decision in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. 507 (2004), exemplifies the dark course being traveled.

At issue in Hamdi was whether an American citizen imprisoned on American soil as an "enemy combatant" could contest his detention by habeas corpus. In a plurality opinion by Justice O'Connor announcing its judgment, the court held "Yes" — but in a manner that radically undermines the constitutional privilege.

The Bush administration contended that Hamdi's status as an "enemy combatant" captured in Afghanistan justified holding him indefinitely without any formal charges or proceedings. And Justice O'Connor agreed that Congress had authorized detention of "enemy combatants." In light of Hamdi's American citizenship, however, this did not support the administration's case. For even during a constitutionally declared "War" — which "the war on terror" is not — a citizen of the United States who is an "enemy combatant" in terms of his behavior is, by constitutional definition, factually and legally a traitor. Article III, Section 3, Clause 1 of the Constitution declares that "Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort." And this, wherever such conduct occurs, because the Constitution does not say that "Treason" can take place only within the United States.

True, the Constitution provides in Article III, Section 3, Clause 2 that, within certain limitations, "Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason." But "Punishment" after conviction is not the same as indefinite imprisonment without trial.

Moreover, the Constitution provides in the Fifth Amendment that "No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury." "Treason" is an "infamous crime." And pursuant to Article III, Section 2, Clause 3, "The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury." Furthermore, the Seventh Amendment requires that "In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury...; and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining Witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense."

More specifically, Article III, Section 3, Clause 1 requires that "No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court." Which plainly requires a trial — and, where relevant, a "Confession" that is not the result of any compulsion that causes the defendant "in any criminal case to be a witness against himself," contrary to the Fifth Amendment.

Thus, labeling an American citizen an "enemy combatant" provides public officials with no license to imprison him indefinitely without trial. Indeed, that such an individual has supposedly engaged in military actions against the United States confirms his right to the procedures and standards the Constitution prescribes for alleged traitors.

Apparently on the basis of Hamdi's status as an "enemy combatant," though, Justice O'Connor concluded that he could be imprisoned for as long as "the record establishes that United States troops are still involved in active combat in Afghanistan." Nonetheless, she allowed that Hamdi may still dispute "his enemy-combatant status" by petitioning for a writ of habeas corpus. Yet the question remained, what evidence and legal argument would be allowed, and in what tribunal.

Justice O'Connor opined that "a citizen-detainee seeking to challenge his classification as an enemy combatant must receive notice of the factual basis for his classification, and a fair opportunity to rebut the Government's factual assertions before a neutral decisionmaker." But, invoking the "potential to burden the Executive at a time of ongoing military conflict," she added: "Hearsay ... may need to be accepted as the most reliable available evidence from the Government." Not content to stop there, she encouraged lower courts to "pay proper heed to the matters of national security that might arise in an individual case" — so that, not only redacted hearsay, but even denunciations within undisclosed "classified" information could be treated as "evidence." The Constitution, however, will not suffer hearsay — least of all from secret sources — in a trial for "Treason," but instead requires "the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act." Strike one.

Worse yet, Justice O'Conner held that "the Constitution would not be offended by a presumption in favor of the Government, so long as that presumption remained a rebuttable one and fair opportunity for rebuttal were provided." The whole of American legal history in the realm of criminal law, however, refutes this notion: in the United States, the accused is always presumed innocent, until the government proves otherwise beyond a reasonable doubt. Strike two.

Worst of all, Justice O'Connor suggested "the possibility that the standards we have articulated could be met by an appropriately authorized and properly constituted military tribunal." "Treason," though, is a constitutionally defined crime that must be tried in open court. Habeas corpus is a common-law writ secured by the Constitution. So on what possible constitutional basis could any "military tribunal" acquire jurisdiction? Strike three — and "The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus" is "out"!

Thus, the scorecard tells the tale: if "We the People" wish to preserve America's freedoms from what Blackstone denounced as the most "dangerous engine of arbitrary government," we have to step up to the plate.

habeas corpus (hay-bee-us core-puss) n. Latin for "you have the body," it is a writ (court order) which directs the law enforcement officials (prison administrators, police, or sheriff) who have custody of a prisoner to appear in court to help the judge determine whether the prisoner is unlawfully in prison or jail. The writ is obtained by petition to a judge in the county or district where the prisoner is incarcerated, and the judge sets a hearing on whether there is a legal basis for holding the prisoner. Habeas corpus is a protection against illegal confinement, such as holding a person without charges, when due process obviously has been denied, bail is excessive, parole has been granted, an accused has been improperly surrendered by the bail bondsman, or probation has been summarily terminated without cause. Historically called "the great writ," the renowned scholar of the Common Law, William Blackstone called it the "most celebrated writ in English law." It may also be used as a means to contest child custody and deportation proceedings in court. The writ of habeas corpus can be employed procedurally in federal district courts to challenge the constitutionality of a state court conviction.

==========================================================

WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS GENERAL FORM

[Title of Court]

____________,
[Plaintiff, Petitioner],

v. No. _________

____________, [Designate name of document]
[Defendant, Respondent].


PETITION FOR WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS


1. Petitioner, _________, is _________[state facts on which petitioner bases right to custody, for example: the mother of _________, who was born on _________[(date)], the issue of a marriage between petitioner and _________, now deceased].

2. The minor is now in the custody and control of respondent, _________, at _________[address] _________ [set forth facts showing that minor is within the geographical jurisdiction of the court].

3. Petitioner has repeatedly demanded that respondent surrender to petitioner the person of the minor, but respondent has refused and still refuses to do so.

4. Petitioner is in all respects a fit and proper person to have custody of the minor, and the minor's interests and welfare will be best served by placing the minor in petitioner's custody.

5. Respondent is an unfit person to have custody and control of the minor, in that _________[specify], and the circumstances surrounding the minor's life with respondent are such as not to conduce to the minor's best welfare.

Wherefore, petitioner requests a writ of habeas corpus, commanding respondent to bring the minor before the court, that the court may make such order concerning the minor's custody as will best serve the minor's welfare.

[Signature]

[Verification, if required]

==========================================================

STATE OF ______________ ) ) SSCOUNTY OF _____________ ) IN THE CIRCUIT COURT OF __________________ COUNTY JUVENILE COURT DIVISIONIn The Interest of: ) )__________________, AGE _____ ) CAUSE NO.____________ ) )__________________, AGE _____ ) CAUSE No.____________ _________________________________) NOTICE OF APPEARANCENow comes _____________________ enter her appearance as counsel in behalf of herself on this date ____/______, 2002.They state for the record that because of the extreme financial hardship placed upon her by the Division of Family Services and the Juvenile Office, the hardship denies them to afford to be represented by counsel of their choosing at this time. PARENT OF CHILD IN ABOVE CAPTIONED MATTER_____________________________ (ADDRESS)______________________________ ________________________ (CITY & STATE) (ZIP)PH. # ( _____ ) - ______ - ________ CERTIFICATE OF SERVICEA copy of the above and foregoing instrument was hand Delivered this day of _____/_____, 2002; to ___________________, Attorney for ________________ Division of Family Services; to _____________________, Attorney for the Minor children, and to _____________________, Deputy Juvenile Office._____________________________ (Signature)

==========================================================

Habeas Corpus [Latin, You have the body.] A writ (court order) that commands an individual or a government official who has restrained another to produce the prisoner at a designated time and place so that the court can determine the legality of custody and decide whether to order the prisoner's release.

A writ of habeas corpus directs a person, usually a prison warden, to produce the prisoner and justify the prisoner's detention. If the prisoner argues successfully that the incarceration is in violation of a constitutional right, the court may order the prisoner's release. Habeas corpus relief also may be used to obtain custody of a child or to gain the release of a detained person who is insane, is a drug addict, or has an infectious disease. Usually, however, it is a response to imprisonment by the criminal justice system.

A writ of habeas corpus is authorized by statute in federal courts and in all state courts. An inmate in state or federal prison asks for the writ by filing a petition with the court that sentenced him or her. In most states, and in federal courts, the inmate is given the opportunity to present a short oral argument in a hearing before the court. He or she also may receive an evidentiary hearing to establish evidence for the petition.

The habeas corpus concept was first expressed in the Magna Charta, a constitutional document forced on King John by English landowners at Runnymede on June 15, 1215. Among the liberties declared in the Magna Charta was that "No free man shall be seized, or imprisoned, or disseised, or outlawed, or exiled, or injured in any way, nor will we enter on him or send against him except by the lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land." This principle evolved to mean that no person should be deprived of freedom without Due Process of Law.

The writ of habeas corpus was first used by the common-law courts in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century England. These courts, composed of legal professionals, were in competition with feudal courts, which were controlled by local landowners, or "lords." The feudal courts lacked procedural consistency, and on that basis, the common-law courts began to issue writs demanding the release of persons imprisoned by them. From the late fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries, the common-law courts used the writ to order the release of persons held by royal courts, such as the Chancery, admiralty courts, and the Star Chamber.

The only reference to the writ of habeas corpus in the U.S. Constitution is contained in Article I, Section 9, Clause 2. This clause provides, "The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it." President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ in 1861, when he authorized his Civil War generals to arrest anyone they thought to be dangerous. In addition, Congress suspended it in 1863 to allow the Union army to hold accused persons temporarily until trial in the civilian courts. The Union army reportedly ignored the statute suspending the writ and conducted trials under Martial Law.

In 1789, Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 (ch. 20, § 14, 1 Stat. 73 [codified in title 28 of the U.S.C.A.]), which granted to federal courts the power to hear the habeas corpus petitions of federal prisoners. In 1867, Congress passed the Habeas Corpus Act of February 5 (ch. 28, 14 Stat. 385 [28 U.S.C.A. §§ 2241 et seq.]). This statute gave federal courts the power to issue habeas corpus writs for "any person … restrained in violation of the Constitution, or of any treaty or law of the United States." The U.S. Supreme Court has interpreted it to mean that federal courts may hear the habeas corpus petitions of state prisoners as well as federal prisoners.

The writ of habeas corpus is an extraordinary remedy because it gives a court the power to release a prisoner after the prisoner has been processed through the criminal justice system, with all its procedural safeguards and appeals. For this reason, the burden is initially on the petitioning prisoner to prove that he or she is being held in violation of a constitutional right. If the petitioner can meet this burden with sufficient evidence, the burden then shifts to the warden to justify the imprisonment.

Habeas Corpus Act The Habeas Corpus Act was an English statute enacted in 1679 during the reign of King Charles II. It was subsequently amended and supple-mented by enactments of Parliament that permitted, in certain cases, a person to challenge the legality of his or her imprisonment before a court that ordered the person to appear before it at a designated time so that it could render its decision. The Habeas Corpus Act served as the precursor of Habeas Corpus provisions found in U.S. federal and state constitutions and statutes that safeguard the guarantee of personal liberty.



Citizens Court Watch + & Thank You For Taking The Time To Read This Websites

I Hope That This Websites Can Help You & Others With Your Court Cases / Laws.

You Can E-Mail US AT yourcivilrights@yahoo.com  You Can Also Write To Us at Rommel P. Westlaw  @  P.O. Box 18010 Spokane, Washington. 99228-0010 U.S.A. P.O. Box 960 Newman Lake, Wa. 99025 or P.O. Box 1144 Bonners Ferry, ID 83805  

Phone Messages Call Us  at (Washington D.C. Offices) At # 202-670-LAWS (5297) Florida # 561-90-PRO-SE (7-7673)  Spokane, Wa. # 509-701-5683 or 509-465-4528  Wisconsin # 920-39-JUDGE (5-8343) Texas # 512-887-8779 All Calls Are Welcome

You May Help Others By Making $$$ A Small Donation Or Help With Your Time. PLEASE REMEMBER DO NOT TAKE THE LAW INTO YOUR OWN HANDS  911*


Disclaimer and Fair Use Pages For Westlaw Books + See Full Disclaimer Page + Its Five 5 Button Down From The Top Of This Website + You Can Click # Button + To Read The Whole Disclaimer For This Website and My Other Website's Info. !

Disclaimer of Warranties and Liabilities:
This site does not warrant the accuracy, completeness, timeliness, safety or merchantability of fitness for a particular purpose of the information contained in This site nor in any way endorse the individuals or institutions listed in This site.


In No Event Shall Westlawbooks.com, or Any Other Web Address Etc. or Domain from Westlaw Books or its staff, its sponsors, its contributors or its ISP be liable for any damages whatsoever, including, without limitation, direct, special, indirect, consequential, or incidental damages, or damages for lost profits, loss of money or revenue, or loss of use, arising out of or related to the westlawbooks.com or Any Other Web Address or Domain from Westlaw Books or my other internet Web Site or the information contained in it, whether such damages arise in contract, negligence, tort, under statute, in equity, at law or otherwise.

In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, any copyrighted work on this website is distributed under fair use without profit or payment for non-profit research and educational purposes only. Read all about Copyright & Fair Use at- http://fairuse.stanford.edu/

If you have a Complaint About Westlaw Books Dot Com or My Other Domain's ?  Content of this Website, how about telling the webmaster first? You can Contact the Webmaster In Writing At P. O. Box 18010 Spokane, WA. 99228-0010 U.S.A.


Disclaimer: + This is A Disclaimer from the Owner of this Website + Please Read ! + Nothing Here Is To Be Construed As "Legal Advice". We Are Not Lawyers, And We Are Not Pretending To Be Lawyers. This manual and website and information is intended purely as a communication of information in accordance with the right of free speech. It does not constitute either general or specific legal advice. Anyone who is seeking any legal advice should consult a competent professional.

The following is provided for informational purposes only and is intended to be used as a guide prior to consultation with an attorney familiar with your specific legal situation. Westlaw Books is not engaged in rendering legal or other Info. & professional advice, and this form is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney. 


Permission to quote statements we make and use our graphics is hereby granted without obtaining permission. We do Not copyright our quotes or graphics we create, which we Want to be widely dissembled to further the cause of Liberty and Justice for your Families and For All Families. If you use our materials, we certainly would appreciate being informed. Thank you !

Although ALL the Author's and Publisher's Citizens Court Watch Dot Com have made every effort to ensure that the information in this book was correct at press time, the author's and publisher's do not assume and hereby disclaim any liability to any party for any loss, damage, or disruption caused by errors or omissions, whether such errors or omissions result from any negligence, accident, or any other cause etc.