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Exemption from laws Exemption from laws can include: Working animals in otherwise restricted places Weapons in otherwise restricted places Controlled operations Access to private and confidential information Disregarding traffic control devicesWorking animals in otherwise restricted places Main articles: Police dog and Police horse

The animals most often used by LEAs are dogs and horses. Dogs are used for search and rescue, chasing and subduing suspects, searching for drugs and explosives, etc.

To enable LEAs to use dogs, they are typically given specific exemption from laws controlling where dogs can be taken, for example Australian Federal Police dogs and Australian Customs Service dogs. Weapons in otherwise restricted places

Many countries have laws forbidding the carrying of weapons in public places. Law enforcement agency personnel, typically police officers, are required to carry firearms in public places. In order to allow LEA personnel to carry firearms, their governing body will enact laws to enable them to do so, for example in the United States. LEAs which are allowed to carry firearms when dealing with subjects, will be subject to strict protocols in the use of firearms.Controlled operations.

Controlled operations requires both exemption from laws and deception. In an open jurisdiction, governing bodies give their law enforcement agencies specific powers to undertake controlled operations via specific laws. Access to private and confidential information.

Private and confidential information can include:Medical recordsBanking and other financial recordsUtility records, such as water and power useTelecommunications records, such as subscribed details and service use details of telephone calls made, received, and where.Disregarding traffic control devices.

Law enforcement personnel may, with cause, disregard any traffic control device or traffic law while in the performance of his/her duties. Such incidents may include:Pursuit of a wanted person, suspect, or suspect-vehicle (to include high-speed pursuit or regular traffic enforcement stop).While in response to certain 9-1-1 calls.During an authorized escort (such as funerals or executive protection details).Communications interception. Main articles: Telephone tapping and Lawful interception

The interception of communications is usually the interception of electronic voice or data connections, and is typically called telecommunications interception (TI). In some countries TI is called wire tapping. Other forms of communications interception can be intercepting radio transmissions and opening physical mail items.

In a civil society or democratic society, governing bodies give their law enforcement agencies specific powers to intercept telecommunications via specific laws, for example, in Australia with the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979, in the United Kingdom via the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000, and in the United States with 18 USC §2516.

The use of TI powers by a LEA is typically subject to strong overview from outside of the LEA. For example, in Australia an ombudsman has strong intrusive powers to monitor and review an LEA utilising TI. Intrusive seizure See also: Evidence management

Intrusive seizure can include:Property seizure by entering premisesTaking from a subject finger prints, palm prints, sole prints, teeth impressions, lip prints, blood samples, DNA samples, etc.Information seizure by accessing information systemsProperty seizure by entering premises Main article: Search and seizure

Law enforcement agencies are specifically given the authority to seize property, for the example the Federal Bureau of Investigation The power to search and seize property is typically granted in an instance via an instrument called a search warrant.Legal deception.

Legal deception powers can include:Assumed identitiesControlled operationsIntrusive surveillanceAssumed identities Main article: Undercover

Law enforcement agency personnel when they take on assumed identities are often referred to as covert officers or undercover officers. The use of such methods in open societies are typically explicitly authorised and is subject to overview, for example in Australia under the Crimes Act 1914, and in the United Kingdom under the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000. Controlled operations.

Controlled operations, an action by a law enforcement agency to allow a criminal act to occur, for example the importation of illicit substances, so that as many of the subjects involved in the act can be idenitified as possible during the process of importation. A controlled operation typically includes the substitution of all of the illicit substances, or the significant majority of them, by the law enforcement agency with similar looking but benign materials.

In open societies, controlled operations are specifically legislated for to be used by law enforcement agencies and are subject to overview, for example in Australia. Intrusive surveillance.

Intrusive surveillance typically means entering or interfering with the private and confidential space and property of a subject. Intrusive surveillance typically requires the law enforcement agency to be enabled for a law enforcement agency, for example in Australia, and in the United Kingdom. Use of force.

Use of force powers can include:Non-lethal force, including either non-lethal weapons or temporary physical holds and contact to immobilize subjectsLethal forceImmobilisation and restraintConstraint of liberty.

Constraint of liberty powers can include:Arrest. The power to arrest is typically granted in an instance via an instrument called an arrest warrant. The power to arrest is also typically granted to a member of an LEA for whenever the member has probable cause to do so. Open governments publicly give their law enforcement agencies the power to arrest subjects, for example, in the United States, the FBI has the power of arrest under 18 USC §3052. Detention Jurisdictional override.

Sometimes, a law enforcement agency will not normally have the jurisdictional authority to be involved in enforcing compliance of, or investigating the non compliance with, a law unless that law or the non complying subject crosses over multiple jurisdictions, or the non compliance is especially severe.

For example, in the United States while kidnapping is typically initially a state jurisdictional matter, the United States' Federal Bureau of Investigation is allowed to take responsibility when the matter crosses state boundaries by virtue of the matter then becoming a federal matter. Direction

The power of direction allows a LEA to direct a subject to either carry out some act or provide information with the subject having no right to refuse, even if the outcome is to incriminate the subject, that is, any explicit, implied, or de facto right to silence is overridden.

This power when provided to an LEA in a civil society or democratic society is typically counterbalanced by the subject not being able to be prosecuted as a result of them complying with the direction, but they can be prosecuted if they do not comply. They can be prosecuted if other law enforcement outcomes have the otherwise same effect. A subject can be prosecuted using information obtained from another subject under direction.

An example of this power of direction is held by the Australian Crime Commission.[15] The Australian Federal Police (AFP) also has a power of direction, but this is limited to being applied to AFP appointees.



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